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Tech Structural Inequalities

The Tech Structural Inequalities project is an initiative by Professors and Students in the Sanford School of Public Policy to study the effect of structural inequalities within the technology sector. On this page, you can find a searchable database of articles on this subject. BIPOC authors have been identified and their work is especially highlighted by this project. This database is a work in progress and new sources will be added over time. A table key is provided below the table for reference.

TitlePub. DateTopicKWAuthFormatSummarySourceDate A.
AI can be sexist and racist — it’s time to make it fair7/18/18Artificial Intelligence and Machine LearningArtificial intelligence, machine learning, racism, sexismJames Zou and Londa Schiebinger.Journal ArticleStates that AI can develop racist and sexist tendencies, often from the training data fed to the AI. Provides data supporting this conclusion. Argues that computer scientists must identify these sources of bias, de-bias training data and develop robust artificial-intelligence algorithms that do not produce discriminatory outcomes. Provides some examples of techniques and policies that could help achieve this goal.https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-05707-85/1/2021
How Copyright Law Can Fix Artificial Intelligence's Implicit Bias Problem6/18Artificial Intelligence and Machine LearningArtificial intelligence, bias, machine learningAmanda LewandowskiLaw Review ArticleExamines how copyright law can contribute to AI reflecting or exacerbating societal biases. Then the article examines fair use doctrine, and whether it can be used to help limit the social biases of AI. The article concludes that fair use doctrine can in fact be used to create "fairer" AI systems by allowing AI to use a larger and more diverse set of data to train itself.Levendowski, Amanda. "How copyright law can fix artificial intelligence's implicit bias problem." Wash. L. Rev. 93 (2018): 579.5/1/2021
Theorizing femininity in artificial intelligence: a framework for undoing technology’s gender troubles9/26/19Artificial IntelligenceArtificial intelligence, feminism, genderDaniel SutkoJournal ArticleExamines the cultural work accomplished by feminized AI and the gendered relations it produces. Argues that the association of femininity and technology (i.e. using a female voice for Siri, Alexa, Cortana) is often perpetuating societal biases. The author suggests that aesthetics, ethics, and performativity as ways to rethink AI in a more fair and less sexist manner.https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09502386.2019.1671469?casa_token=CGyA_9-dRtAAAAAA%3AImMhUD4qg5z005PapYELGq5YMA6Azfg_7PaZVE6PT1zeXZ1F0b7xeg1LTOGSRNVGARIMgPrEf0gj5/1/2021
Artificial Intelligence, Algorithmic Racism and the Canadian Criminal Justice System10/26/20Artificial Intelligence and Machine LearningArtificial intelligence, machine learning, racism, criminal justiceGideon ChristianBlog PostDescribes how AI tools that calculate recidivism risk assessments (which is used to estimate how much freedom criminal defendants should be permitted) can draw on inaccurate racial stereotypes and perpetuate systemic racism. Such AI fueled systems are becoming increasingly common in Canadian criminal courts, but it is prone to perpetuating societal biases. The Article examines the sources of this bias, highlighting algorithmic racism, legality of the use of AI risk assessment, and the proprietary nature of the AI's methodology as potential shortcomings of using AI to inform recidivism decisions. Huq, Aziz Z. "Racial equity in algorithmic criminal justice." Duke LJ 68 (2018): 1043.5/1/2021
Google’s Artificial Intelligence Hate Speech Detector Has a ‘Black Tweet’ Problem8/13/19Artificial Intelligence and Machine LearningArtificial intelligence, machine learning, hate speech, TwitterCissi CaoNewspaper ArticleDescribes the failures of Google's "toxicity detector" algorithm designed to complement its broader efforts to detect hate speech. The program analyzed a datasets of tweets and labeled a disproportionate of black authors as "toxic" for their use of the N word. To compensate, Google attempted to identify black users by employing a program that scanned the tweets for AAVE, further biasing the algorithm's results. https://observer.com/2019/08/google-ai-hate-speech-detector-black-racial-bias-twitter-study/5/1/2021
Those designing healthcare algorithms must become actively anti-racist9/9/20Artificial Intelligence and Machine LearningArtificial intelligence, machine learning, healthcare, racismKellie Owens and Alexis WalkerJournal ArticleMany widely used health algorithms have been shown to encode and reinforce racial health inequities, prioritizing the needs of white patients over those of patients of color. Because automated systems are becoming so crucial to access to health, researchers in the field of artificial intelligence must become actively anti-racist. Here we list some concrete steps to enable anti-racist practices in medical research and practice.https://observer.com/2019/08/google-ai-hate-speech-detector-black-racial-bias-twitter-study/5/1/2021
Human Rights and Artificial Intelligence: An Urgently Needed Agenda2/1/19Artificial IntelligenceArtificial intelligence, human rights, discrimination, algorithmsMathias RisseJournal ArticleThe increasing presence of artificial intelligence creates enormous challenges for human rights. Among the short-term challenges are ways in which technology engages just about all rights on the UDHR, as exemplified through use of effectively discriminatory algorithms. Medium-term challenges include changes in the nature of work that could call into question many people’s status as participants in society. In the long-term humans may have to live with machines that are intellectually and possibly morally superior, even though this is highly speculative. This article addresses the "morality of intelligence," and what this means for equality throughout our present and future society.Risse, Mathias. "Human rights and artificial intelligence: An urgently needed agenda." Human Rights Quarterly 41.1 (2019): 1-16.5/1/2021
Artificial Bias7/29/19Artificial Intelligence and Machine LearningArtificial intelligence, machine learning, biasClaire HathawayMagazine ArticleVery short article that focuses on stressing the importance of identifying and mitigating biases in emerging technologies like Artificial Intelligencehttps://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/sites/ff3c6202-en/index.html?itemId=/content/paper/ff3c6202-en5/1/2021
Detecting racial bias in algorithms and machine learning7/18Artificial Intelligence and Machine LearningArtificial intelligence, machine learning, racism, algorithmsNicol Turner LeeAcademic PaperAlgorithmic biases explicitly and implicitly harm racial groups and lead to forms of discrimination. The paper recommends more workplace diversity within high-tech industries and public policies that can detect or reduce the likelihood of racial bias in algorithmic design and execution. Suggest that existing laws (ex. ones that govern housing, employment, and the extension of credit) can be used to mitigate this bias.https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/JICES-06-2018-0056/full/html5/1/2021
Machine Learning and Medical Appointment Scheduling: Creating and Perpetuating Inequalities in Access to Health Care/Comments4/20Artificial Intelligence and Machine LearningArtificial intelligence, machine learning, healthcareMichele Samorani, Linda Goler Blount, Howard RodenbergMagazine ArticleIn real-life circumstances- such as medical diagnoses and policies that determine access to health care and social services or where your child is placed in school-algorithms can separate populations into groups of haves and have-nots along racial lines, exacerbating the racial disparity experienced by the different groups. Algorithms can determine the health of entire communities. Invisible to most of us, algorithms are described as the great equalizers.https://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/full/10.2105/AJPH.2020.3055705/1/2021
Measuring discrimination in algorithmic decision making3/31/17Artificial Intelligence and Machine LearningArtificial intelligence, machine learning, discrimination, algorithmsIndrė ŽliobaitėJournal ArticleDue to the nature and noisiness of observational data, predictive models may systematically disadvantage people belonging to certain categories or groups, instead of relying solely on individual merits. This may happen even if the computing process is fair and well-intentioned. Discrimination-aware data mining studies of how to make predictive models free from discrimination, when the historical data, on which they are built, may be biased, incomplete, or even contain past discriminatory decisions. Discrimination-aware data mining is an emerging research discipline, and there is no firm consensus yet of how to measure the performance of algorithms. The goal of this survey is to review various discrimination measures that have been used, analytically and computationally analyze their performance, and highlight implications of using one or another measure.https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10618-017-0506-15/1/2021
AI: from rational agents to socially responsible agents2019Artificial IntelligenceSocial responsibility, ethics, biasesAntonio Vetro, Antonio Santangelo, Elena Beretta, Juan Carlos De MartinJournal ArticleThis paper aims to analyze the limitations of the mainstream definition of artificial intelligence (AI) as a rational agent, which currently drives the development of most AI systems. The authors advocate the need of a wider range of driving ethical principles for designing more socially responsible AI agents.The authors observe that biases measurements on the datasets are sufficient to demonstrate potential risks of discriminations when using those data in AI rational agents.https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/DPRG-08-2018-0049/full/html5/1/2021
Combating AI Bias Through Responsible LeadershipJune 2019Artificial IntelligenceBias, intelligence, algorithmsTamia SantiagoMagazine Articlehttps://www.nationaldefensemagazine.org/articles/2019/6/6/viewpoint-combating-ai-bias-through-responsible-leadership5/1/2021
The Impact of a User's Biases on Interactions with Virtual Humans and Learning during Virtual Emergency Management TrainingDecember 2019Artificial IntelligenceInterpersonal relationships, racial bias, computer simulationSarah A. Zipp, Scotty D. CraigJournal Article: General ReportBiases influence the decisions people make in everyday life, even if they are unaware of it. The current study investigates the extent bias behavior transfers into social interactions in virtual worlds by investigating the effect of aversive racism on helping behaviors and learning within a virtual world for medical triage training. his study showed that participants applied general biases against dark-skinned agents regardless of participant's ethnicity or avatar's skin-tone. It indicates the importance of considering biases when designing training systems.http://dx.doi.org.proxy.lib.duke.edu/10.1007/s11423-019-09647-65/1/2021
Systemic Racism is a Cybersecurity Threat6/16/20CybersecurityCybersecurity, racism Camille StewartThink Tank Blog PostSystemic racism is a weakness hostile actors can exploit through targeted cybersecurity attacks and disinformation campaigns. Article explains why this, focusing on misinformation, formenting distrust of institutions, and other information campaigns spread over the internet.https://www.cfr.org/blog/systemic-racism-cybersecurity-threat5/1/2021
Cybersecurity needs women3/26/18CybersecurityCybersecurity, gender Winifred PosterMagazine ArticleWomen are more likely to be the targets of cybercrime and cyber abuse than men, but they are underrepresented in cybersecurity professions. Minimizing this imbalance is critical for securing long-term sustainability for the industry. The discipline also needs to learn about women’s experiences as victims of cybercrime and the steps needed to address the imbalance of harm.https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-03327-w5/1/2021
I'm dedicating the rest of my career to fixing the pay gap': TalkTalk's former cyber--security chief tells Cara McGoogan why she spent £100,000 fighting the firm over gender equality10/29/19CybersecurityCybersecurity, gender inequality, wage gapSamantha Cameron, Tina BrownNewspaper ArticleBurke was put in charge of the postcyber attack security programme and formed a weekly security committee, which included Harding, then chief executive, and board members. Rebecca Burke is crowdfunding for her landmark equal pay claim against TalkTalk. The event will bring together more than 500 business leaders and entrepreneurs for a day of action, debate and networking. 'I hadn't really noticed the everyday sexism - it was always there''We are committed to treating employees fairly and confident there is no disparity'https://www.telegraph.co.uk/women/business/spent-familys-savings-taking-talktalk-court-equal-pay/5/1/2021
You've got a friend in me: How social networks and mobile phones facilitate healthcare access among marginalized groups in rural Thailand and Lao PDR.January 2021Health Information/Public HealthMarginalization, health services accessibility, rural population, cell phonesMarco J. Haenssgen, Nutcha Charoenboon, Giacomo ZanelloResearch ArticleNew digital inequalities among marginalised groups could be amplified by the recent widespread of health-related phone use. Using treatment-seeking data from households in Thailand and Laos, we address equality in technological development interventions. We document a broad spectrum of "informal" health-related mobile phone uses alongside widespread health-related social support. We show that health-related phone use and social support facilitate public healthcare access among marginalised groups.10.1016/j.worlddev.2020.1051565/1/2021
Determinants and beliefs of health information mavens among a lower-socioeconomic position and minority population7/11Health Information PrivacyHealth information, public health, disparitiesEmily Kontos, Karen Emmons, Elaine Puleo, K. ViswanathAcademic PaperMinority groups rely on interpersonal forms of communication to navigate the health system, and research shows that the concept of an information maven may help these minority groups navigate our health system with more ease. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277953611002668?casa_token=IoqRIwvO4tYAAAAA:BZqsXiDow4g0nN8zTyfZZrrYyxWt-okWaPY5SM1wWSbiqi_ejhVZf1AgCYbQdqKHY0lxoct25/1/2021
Use of Health Information Technology among Racial and Ethnic Underserved Communities2011Health Information TechnologyInformation technology, health information technology, race, disparities Michael Christopher GibbonsAcademic PaperHealth information technology can be used to address disparities in healthcare among racial and ethnic minority populations. Health IT can provide benefits at the provider, patients, and system levels. Focuses on highlighting areas in which technology use in minority populations differs from that of nonminority populations and emphasizing the importance of new social media applications in healthcare education and delivery. The article identifies several technical, practical, and human challenges to health IT adoption and stresses the need for the healthcare system to embrace the full spectrum of emerging health IT opportunities to address healthcare disparities.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3035830/5/1/2021
Disparities in Using Technology to Access Health Information: Race Versus Health Literacy3/14Health Information TechnologyHealth information, disparities, raceRosette Chakkalakal et al.Academic PaperExamines how patient race and health literacy impacts technology use with self-management of a patient's management of Type II diabetes. Minorities tend to have lower technology literacy, but the gap is narrowing. Article argues that as technology becomes more important in healthcare, certain groups might not be able to reap the benefits if they are unable to gain the technological literacy to benefit from technology-based interventions.https://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/37/3/e53+5/1/2021
Patient Privacy in the Era of Big Data1/20/18Health Information PrivacyPatient privacy, health information, privacy regulationMehmet KayaalpAcademic PaperThis article examines the state of patient privacy and patient data in the modern technological world, and the examines how this data can best be used to help patients and society. Argues that to open the gates of big data to scientific communities, healthcare institutions need to be supported in their de-identification and data sharing efforts by the public, scientific communities, and local, state, and federal legislators and government agencyhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5820452/5/1/2021
The effects of health information technology on the costs and quality of medical care3/14Health Information TechnologyHealth information technology, healthcare, efficiencyLeila AghaAcademic PaperAnalyzes the role of health information technology on the quality and intensity of medical care. Argues against HIT through an economic perspective. The author argues that HIT jas increased cost for patients without saving any costs or leading to higher healthcare quality.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629613001720?casa_token=ZiFfZ03_lecAAAAA:HiW7KSVXkZhmaKT7mTY0sSjOyxcxlBj-AbFNkaHlK1TXJT3Vxf5P_CA7UV8vFEzFNCeKlYcz5/1/2021
Racial Disparity of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in African American Communities6/30/20Health/MedicineRacial disparity, Coronavirus, African AmericansRavina Kullar, Jasmine Marcelin, Talia Swartz, Damani Piggott, Raul Gil, Trini MathewAcademic PaperInvestigates structural inequities that impact COVID-19 spread and lethality in the African American (Black) community. Looks at the historical roots of these inequalities. Also, provides an approach to tackle these healthcare disparities.https://academic.oup.com/jid/article/222/6/890/5864892?login=true5/1/2021
Accessing sexual health information online: use, motivations and consequences for youth with different sexual orientations7/16/13Health Information; Sexual OrientationSexual health, sexual orientation, health informationKimberly Mitchell, Michele Ybarra, Josephine Korchmaros, Joseph KosciwAcademic PaperResearches why youth of different sexual orientations (LGBTQ+) search for sexyal health information online and how they use that information. Concludes that further support is needed to accurately portray sexual health information online, and more resources are needed on topics related to minority sexual orientations.https://academic.oup.com/her/article/29/1/147/711147?login=true5/1/2021
Mutual Shaping of Tele-Healthcare Practice: Exploring Community Perspectives on Telehealth Technologies in Northern and Indigenous Contexts6/10/20Health/MedicineTele-health, health technologyJolena LeaderDoctoral DissertationImpact of different community perspectives on telehealth technologies for indigenous populations. The article explores how socio-cultural factors shape how technologies are designed, implemented, and used, and alternatively how technologies shape practice and meanings of socio-technical spaces. Also argues that understanding the context in which telehealth technologies are situated and experienced will be increasingly critical as technological systems play greater roles in service delivery.https://harvest.usask.ca/handle/10388/128895/1/2021
Access to Care Matters: Remote Health Care Needs During COVID-199/30/20Health/MedicineHealthcare, telehealth, COVID-19Juan Vazquez, Tanzina Islam, Jonathan Gursky, Jennifer Beller, and Daniel Jose CorreaAcademic PaperAssess impact of COVID-19 in Bronx, NY and calls for the need of fundamental changes in training, technological accessibility, and health care policy. AUthors also propose increased screening of a patient's technological inequities and socioeconomic insecurities.https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/full/10.1089/tmj.2020.03715/1/2021
Bridging the Digital Divide in Health Care: The Role of Health Information Technology in Addressing Racial and Ethnic Disparities10/11Health Information TechnologyDigital divide, health information technology, disparitiesLenny López, Alexander R. Green, Aswita Tan-McGrory, Roderick King, Joseph R. BetancourtAcademic PaperExamines the role of Health Information Technology in improving quality and cost of health care for patients, while also reducing racial and ethnic disparities. Argues that despite an uneven and generally low level of implementation, research has demonstrated that HIT has the potential to improve quality of care and patient safety. If carefully designed and implemented, HIT also has the potential to eliminate disparities. In contrast to the paper from Michael Christopher.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S15537250113705595/1/2021
“Blocking” and “Filtering”: a Commentary on Mobile Technology, Racism, and the Sexual Networks of Young Black MSM (YBMSM)4/30/18Health/Medicine, Health Information Privacy and Technology, Social Media, Online HarassmentHealth, discrimination, social mediaTerrell Winder and Charles Lea IIIAcademic Paper"Blocking" and "filtering" functions on geo-social networking platforms can lead to racism and racial sexual discrimination unintentionally. Focuses on many structural inequities and mobile technology. They contend that some protective mechanisms against racism on GSN applications are fundamentally a public health issue that requires more research and explicit intervention.https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40615-018-0493-y5/1/2021
The Future of Precision Medicine: Potential Impacts for Health Technology Assessment7/13/18Health Information Privacy, Health/MedicineHealth information systems, precision medicine, healthcare, James Love‑Koh, Alison Peel, Juan Carlos Rejon‑Parrilla, Kate Ennis, Rosemary Lovett, Andrea Manca, Anastasia Chalkidou, Hannah Wood, Matthew TaylorAcademic PaperPredicts the role of health information technology assessments agencies in the future as precision medicine (care that is tailored to a specific group of patients) is refined and digitized. Argues that precision medicine interventions are likely to proliferate over the next decade and will change the way services are delivered and evaluated.https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40273-018-0686-65/1/2021
Health Literacy and Health Information Technology Adoption: The Potential for a New Digital Divide4/10/16Health Information TechnologyHealth information technology, digital divide, health literacyMichael Mackert, Amanda Mabry-Flynn,Sara Champlin, Erin E Donovan, Kathrynn PoundersAcademic PaperMany Americans have low health literacy and this causes struggles with using health information. Health information technology is vital for patients to learn and this study found that greater health literacy was "significantly associated with greater perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness across all HIT tools after controlling for demographics."https://www.jmir.org/2016/10/e264?platform=hootsuite5/1/2021
Round hole, square peg: a discourse analysis of social inequalities and the political legitimization of health technology in Norway12/16/19Health/Medicine; Social InequalitiesSocial inequality, health technology, public health policyDaniel WeissAcademic PaperAnalyzes the discourse on public health policy in Norway with a focus on innovative health technology and social inequities. In their own words "Results suggest that despite an overt political imperative for reducing social inequalities, the Norwegian national discourse gives little attention to the potential for these innovations to unintentionally (re) produce social inequalities. Instead, it is characterized by neoliberal undertones, individualizing and commercializing public health and promoting pro-innovation ideology."https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12889-019-8023-35/1/2021
Predictors of eHealth Usage: Insights on The Digital Divide From the Health Information National Trends Survey 20127/16/14Health Information Technology; Health/InformationDigital divide, health information, tele-healthEmily Kontos, Kelly Blake, Wen-Ying Sylvia Chou, Abby PrestinAcademic PaperExamines the effectives, of eHealth technology in empowering patients and improving health among vulnerable populations. Calls for future studies to address issues of health literacy and eHealth literacy. The study found that lower SES, older, and male online US adults were less likely to engage in a number of eHealth activities compared to their counterparts.https://www.jmir.org/2014/7/e172/5/1/2021
In Myanmar, sex education comes from smartphones 6/21/18Health Information/TechnologySexual health, smartphones, women's educationThe Economist (anonymous)News/Journal ArticleDescribes the stigma against sexual education and conversation in Myanmar, and how smartphones are beginning to turn this around. A new app called maymay gives women guidance about maternal, child and female health, and young women are not reaching out anonymously to their doctors for help. But for the women who don't have access to this technology, the lack of information and ever present stigma keeps them well behind the curve.https://www.economist.com/asia/2018/06/21/in-myanmar-sex-education-comes-from-smartphones5/1/2021
Self-concept, self-esteem, gender, race and information technology use5/10Technology UseInformation technology, gender, race, self-conceptionLinda A.Jackson, Alexander von Eye, Hiram E. Fitzgerald, Yong Zhao, Edward A.WittAcademic PaperInvestigates the relationship between technology use and self-concept/esteem, and also examines gender and racial differences between these concepts and technology use.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563209001721?casa_token=sOLfpHOG-0cAAAAA:neXlAm72qUhsyefdO6qT5NFumQD3iM1XNsNwvhzRsCzeQqEAFHRqmGwMx7QjK3SuNaskiamD5/1/2021
Care work, gender inequality and technological advancement in the age of COVID‐1911/14/19Health/MedicineGender inequality, COVID-19, technological developmentsJulie MacLeavyAcademic PaperIn the COVID-19 pandemic, resources have been stretched, so this article assess the potential of technological developments to change care practices and emphasizes the need to address sensory dimensions of care.https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/gwao.125345/1/2021
Big Data Science: Opportunities and Challenges to Address Minority Health and Health Disparities in the 21st Century4/20/17Health Information Technology; Health/InformationMinority health, health disparitiesXinzhi Zhang, MD, PhD ; Eliseo J Pérez-Stable, MD ; Philip E. Bourne, PhD ; Emmanuel Peprah, PhD ; O. Kenrik Duru, MD, MSHS ; Nancy Breen, PhD ; David Berrigan, PhD, MPH ; Fred Wood, DBA, MBA ; James S Jackson, PhD ; David W.S. Wong, PhD, MA ; Joshua Denny, MD, MSAcademic PaperPaper looks at the role of Big Data in addressing minority health. The paper focuses on three main issues that Big Data may address: standardized information on demographics, enhance public health surveillance, and building better intervention development through a deeper undering of health disparities.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5398183/5/1/2021
The promises of "Going digital" for all: where technology meets social policy? A Statistical Analysis of European Union's Digital Skills Inclusion Policies and Digital Skills inequalityAugust 2020Societal DevelopmentPublic policy, digital divide, digital skills, inequalityAshley FullerAcademic PaperThis study investigates the associations between digital inclusion policies and national levels of digital skills across the European Union using Eurostat data from 2010 to 2019. Digital skills inequalities are also explored by gender and educational levels. Results suggest that public digital skills policies are associated with higher levels of digital skills, and lower levels of digital skills inequality. Conversely, private digital skills policies increase digital skills inequality. This paper explicitly links digital skills with social welfare, bridging human capital and labour market perspectives with nuanced understandings of digital skills and their reflection of pre existing socio-economic inequalities.5/1/2021
Inequality of what? An intersectional approach to digital inequality under Covid-197/29/20Societal DevelopmentDigital inequality, intersectionality, social exclusion, COVID-19, digital divide, positionality Yingqin Zheng, Geoff WalshamAcademic PaperAs part of a future research agenda, we propose that IS research should move beyond simplistic notions of digital divisions to examine digital technology as implicated in complex and intersectional systems of power, and improve our sensitivity to the positionality of individuals and groups within social orders. Implications for practice and policy are also discussed, including moving beyond single-axis analysis of digital exclusion.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infoandorg.2021.1003415/1/2021
Finance, globalization, technology and inequality: Do nonlinearities matter?December 2020Societal DevelopmentGlobalization, skilled labor, technology development, economic growthAntonio Francesco Gravina, Matteo LanzafameAcademic StudyTechnology and financial development lead to increasing inequality for most emerging economies, while the effects for advanced economies are mixed. Furthermore, our results indicate that credit constraints act as a transmission channel for the effects of financial development on inequality, foreign direct investment and the supply of unskilled labour for the impact of technology and the supply of skilled labour for the effects of globalisation.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econmod.2020.12.0265/1/2021
Improving public services using artificial intelligence: possibilities, pitfalls, governanceDecember 2020Societal DevelopmentAlgorithms, ethics, digital government, public administrationPaul henmanJournal ArticleThis article reviews how artificial intelligence is being used in public sector for automated decision making, for chatbots to provide information and advice, and for public safety and security. It then outlines four public administration challenges to deploying artificial intelligence in public administration: accuracy, bias and discrimination; legality, due process and administrative justice; responsibility, accountability, transparency and explainability; and power, compliance and control.10.1080/23276665.2020.18161885/1/2021
Institutional Transformation: Supporting Equity and Excellence in STEMM2020Societal DevelopmentDiversity, science, inclusion, institutional transformation, marginalized communitiesShirley Malcom, Lindsey Malcom-PiqueuxJournal ArticleThe rationale for increasing diversity in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM) has evolved over time, but the approaches to making these fields more inclusive have yet to achieve large-scale success for racially minoritized populations. Diverse perspectives are necessary to fuel the high-quality research and innovation required to address humanity's greatest challenges and shape our future in a positive way.This article discusses why institutional transformation is required to make STEM fields inclusive given the disadvantages accumulated by minoritized populations over centuries of denial of opportunity.http://dx.doi.org.proxy.lib.duke.edu/10.1080/00091383.2020.17327925/1/2021
Beyond the Valley: How Innovators around the World Are Overcoming Inequality and Shaping the Technologies of Tomorrow10/24/19Societal DevelopmentInternet technology, innovation, opportunity, Silicon ValleyRamesh SrinivasanBookThe book bears a necessary agenda and promise: that the end-all and be-all of internet technology need not be the whims of venture capital-fuelled startupbros, and that there is a much wider world of innovation, experimentation and resistance to which we can turn for answers.5/1/2021
Technology foresight for social good: Social implications of technological innovation by 2050 from a Global Expert Survey4/20Societal DevelopmentSocial welfare, technological innovationCaixia Mao, Ryu Koide, Alexander Brem, Lewis AkenjiAcademic PaperAdvocates for further study on social dimensions to look at their policy implications. Concludes that technological innovation benefits from increased communication and productivity at the supply chain level.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040162519305608?casa_token=L76VnhMsXXYAAAAA:E5LLuhMWZFQ5GaZZiLev9LuDZKj7tDFE1Oj9FtybRjWHXHlW-W7f29AdDXZtW8xJvSk6IsmY5/1/2021
Safety planning for technology: displaced women and girls’ interactions with information and communication technology in Lebanon and harm reduction considerations for humanitarian settingsDecember, 2018Societal developmentGender inequality, information technology, safetyKristy Crabtree, Geara PetronilleJournal ArticleThis article aims to provide practical recommendations for service providers on how to safely introduce information and communications technology into programming for women and girlshttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s41018-018-0031-x5/1/2021
The Internet of Things as a Tool for Inclusion and EqualityAugust, 2017Societal developmentInternet, inclusion, equality, accessibilityJules Polonetsky, Stacey GrayJournal ArticleCyber-physical systems, or the Internet of Things (IoT) can be a powerful tool for inclusion and equality, enabling accessibility for many who have traditionally encountered hardship or exclusion. This article discusses the ways in which policymakers and regulators can productivey protect data privacy with technological advancements while also promoting beneficial innovation. https://search.proquest.com/docview/2026398611/citation/918A3C2D12424CBBPQ/1?accountid=105985/1/2021
Regulating the Internet of Things: Discrimination, Privacy, and Cybersecurity in the Artificial Intelligence Age2018Societal developmentIoT, discrimination, cybersecurity, policy, technology regulationCharlotte TschiderJournal ArticleThis Article explores the technology and market of IoT, potential consumer impacts resulting from a lack of consistent and complete legal framework, whether IoT regulation is appropriate, and how the United States can balance market needs for innovation with consistent oversight for IoT manufacturers and distributors.https://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/denlr96&div=6&id=&page=5/1/2021
The Effects of Public Concern for Information Privacy on the Adoption of Health Information Exchanges (HIEs) by Healthcare Entities5/8/18Health Information PrivacyInformation privacy, health information, healthcarePouyan EsmaeilzadehAcademic PaperAnalyzes the effective of healthcare organizations partaking in Health Information Exchanges and finds that privacy concerns influences a patient's participation and/or consent to share data.https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/10.1080/10410236.2018.14713365/1/2021
Unequal Consumers: Consumerist healthcare technologies and their creation of new inequalities5/8/18Consumer level technology; Health/Medicine; Health information technologyHealthcare, consumer level technologies, inequalitiesLaura M. Visser, Yvonne W.M. Benschop, Inge L. Bleijenbergh, Allard C.R. van RielAcademic PaperThis paper argues that consumer technology causes varying levels of inequalities in patient care and investigates how health care professionals attempt to provide equal treatment to all of their patients.https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0170840618772599?casa_token=5c_Zsq9etTMAAAAA%3ArRSRe4P-Za32YxAuVqxip2Is9sZIeATOPSelkmr7tJQFmJ2nJ7JdAdh5KrzV8EaY1gmGsC4cKxP95/1/2021
Predicting antecedents of wearable healthcare technology acceptance by elderly: A combined SEM-Neural Network approach1/20Health Information Technology; Health/MedicineHealthcare technology, elderly technology, wearablesShamim Talukder, Golam Sorwar, Yukun Bao, Jashim Uddin Ahmed, Abu Saeed PalashAcademic PaperArticles investigates the relationship between wearable technologies and the elderly population. Authors conclude that "social influence, performance expectancy, functional congruence, self-actualization, and hedonic motivation" all increased usage of this technology, while technology anxiety and resistance all posed negative roles on the adoption of this technology. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040162518320031?casa_token=3Vdt47DRL3IAAAAA:W2b4y4lUIdn0zjuGxX4vGUZc_nNfEZEnpq8B52g4hWq5TkrDvJZEFCdJGW2jksJ6Y-ptvJur5/1/2021
Exploring digital divides: An examination of eHealth technology use in health information seeking, communication and personal health information management in the USA9/20/11Health Information Technology; Health/MedicineDigital divide, eHealth technology, health information Mia Liza A. Lustria, Scott Alan Smith, Charles C. HinnantAcademic PaperStudy assess whether health information technologies are being equally distributed to different population groups, with a focus on the underserved. The findings, which are reliant on the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), advocate for more research to assess the efficacy of eHealth tools in underserved and disadvantaged groups of people. The authors conclude that other factors such as health literacy, may be a better predictor of this study. This articles fits in well with other articles in our database that assess health literacyhttps://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/14604582114148435/1/2021
Differences in Access to and Preferences for Using Patient Portals and Other eHealth Technologies Based on Race, Ethnicity, and Age: A Database and Survey Study of Seniors in a Large Health Plan3/4/16Health information technology; Health/MedicineeHealth Technology, race, ethnicity, Nancy P. Gordon and Mark C. HornbrookAcademic PaperThe study examines the relationship between race/ethnic and age disparities in seniors that use a health plan's online patient portal to determine if there are race/ethnic and age disparities in the digital age and whether or not these are due to access to Internet/inability to use technological resources or other demographic factors. Results found that non-Hispanic Whites and Chinese seniors were the most likely to be registered on online platforms, while Latino, Black, and Filipino seniors were less likely. The Authors conclude that social determinants should be monitored in electronic healthcare portals to reduce the disparities between different groups of seniors. https://www.jmir.org/2016/3/e50/5/1/2021
Access to Care and Use of the Internet to Search for Health Information: Results From the US National Health Interview Survey4/17/16Health information technology; Health/MedicineHealth information technology, healthcare Daniel J Amante, Timothy P Hogan, Sherry L Pagoto, Thomas M English, and Kate L LapaneAcademic PaperStudies whether looking up health information on the Inverst is associated with difficulty obtaining health care services (unrelated to insurance coverage), and results support improving the accuracy and reliability of health information resources that are available on the internet to reduce misdiagnoses and ease access to information.https://www.jmir.org/2015/4/e106/5/1/2021
Digital Health Communication Common Agenda 2.0: An Updated Consensus for the Public and Private Sectors to Advance Public Health12/1/19Public health and technologyPublic health, health information technology Robert S. Gold, Auld M Elaine, Lorien C Abroms, Joseph Smyser, Yom-Tov EladJournal ArticleThis article reports outcomes of the Digital Health Promotion Executive Leadership Summit, which caused people to brainstorm how communication technology and the evolving social media platforms can be utilized to improve both individual and public health.https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1090198119874086#5/1/2021
Technologies and Health Inequities4/29/20Health InequitiesHealth technologies, social inequities, digital health, personalized medicineStefan Timmermans and Rebecca KaufmanJournal Article: Annual ReviewHealth technologies aim to improve individual and population health, but they may also exacerbate health disparities. Focusing on the specific design features of technologies, their availability, and their use, we present a conceptual framework to examine how health technologies may benefit some groups more than others by combining the theory of fundamental causes with a technology-in-practice approach.https://doi-org.proxy.lib.duke.edu/10.1146/annurev-soc-121919-0548025/1/2021
From "Infodemics" to Health Promotion: A Novel Framework for the Role of Social Media in Public Health9/1/20Public healthSocial media, health information, disparitiesDean Schillinger, Deepti Chittamuru, A Susana RamírezJournal ArticleDuring the COVID-19 pandemic, social media has been described as the source of a toxic "infodemic" or a valuable tool for public health. No conceptual model exists for examining the roles that social media can play with respect to population health. This paper presents a framework for guiding the investigation and assessment of the effects of social media on public health, as well as a set of outcomes relevant to the evaluation of those effects. https://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/full/10.2105/AJPH.2020.3057465/1/2021
New Ways to Bring Women Into and Up Through Cybersecurity Careers4/8/19CybersecurityCybersecurity, gender inequality, female representation Laura Bate and Elizabeth WeingartenThink Tank ReportReport considers new ideas and implementable strategies to bring women into and up through cybersecurity careers. Notable themes include empowering coordinators, engaging and collaborating with businesses, and using marketing and other platforms to establish narratives. Also discusses what educators, leaders, hiring managers, and other partners can dohttps://www.newamerica.org/cybersecurity-initiative/reports/new-ways-bring-women-and-through-cybersecurity-careers/5/1/2021
Gender Inequalities in Cybersecurity: Exploring the Gender Gap in Opportunities and Progression2017CybersecurityCybersecurity, gender inequality, gender gap Donna Peacock and Alastair IronsJournal ArticleThe article considers the impact of gender in the global cybersecurity industry. There is currently significant underrepresentation of women in the industry caused by low numbers of women entering the field and compounded by a high rate of women choosing to leave this highly male-dominated work environment. The findings are based upon a quantitative study conducted by means of an online survey. The research considers the motivations, experiences and progression of those working within cybersecurity roles.http://genderandset.open.ac.uk/index.php/genderandset/article/view/4495/1/2021
Underrepresentation of Females in the United States Cybersecurity Workforce: A Multiple-case Study2019CybersecurityCybersecurity, gender inequality, female representation Sturhonda JamesAcademic PaperThe purpose of this qualitative multiple-case study was to explore the underrepresentation of females in the cybersecurity profession by examining the factors that contribute to the interest, hiring, development, advancement, and sustainability of females in this profession within the United States. The overarching research question asked, “why is there a disproportionately low representation of female workers in the U.S. cybersecurity industry?”http://genderandset.open.ac.uk/index.php/genderandset/article/view/4495/1/2021
Security, Privacy, and the Built EnvironmentJune 2015CybersecurityCybersecurity, privacy, built environmentHugh BoyesJournal ArticleThis article considers the impact of BIM, the increased use of technologies in digital asset management, and the emergence of smart assets on security and privacy. It focuses specifically on these primarily wireless developments in the context of the build environment, and how we must adjust to such a merging of worlds.https://search.proquest.com/openview/524ae453b5af718568bcf782065a4817/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=18750&diss=y5/1/2021
Biometric Technology and Ethics: Beyond Security ApplicationsJuly 2018CybersecurityBiometric technology, privacy, ethics, discriminationAndrea North-SamardzicJournal ArticleThis paper addresses the ethical issues inherent to the development and use of biometric technology. It explores research on biometrics for non-security purposes and the ethical implications for organizations.https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10551-019-04143-65/1/2021
Friction, snake oil, and weird countries: Cybersecurity systems could deepen global inequality through regional blockingJanuary 2019CybersecurityCybersecurity, inequality, discrimination Anne Jonas, Jenna Burrell Academic PaperWithout understanding the systematic social and political conditions that produce differential behaviors online, technical systems may continue to embed unequal treatments, and troublingly may further disguise such discrimination behind more complex and less transparent automated assessment. This paper analyzes how current forms of regional blocking incentivize users in blocked regions to behave in ways that are commonly flagged as problematic by dominant security and identification systems. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/20539517198352385/1/2021
Expert: Diversity in Cybersecurity Starts with 'Targeted Recruiting'9/7/17CybersecurityDiversity, recruitment, job discrimination, gender inequalityJamaal Abdul-AlimNews ArticleThe article offers information on cyber security and how seeking diversity in technology plays a significant role in colleges and universities recruitment. The article mention the news reports on a memo by a scientist at Google who gave explanation on the biological differences between men and women that results in the gender gap in the technology industry.https://diverseeducation.com/article/100254/5/1/2021
Artificial Intelligence and Its Implications for Income Distribution and Unemployment12/17Artificial Intelligence/Machine LearningArtificial intelligence, unemployment, structural inequality Anton Korinek and Joseph StiglitzAcademic PaperThis paper provides a taxonomy of the economic issues associated with artificial intelligence: First, we discuss the general conditions under which new technologies such as AI may lead to a Pareto improvement. Secondly, we delineate the two main channels through which inequality is affected – the surplus arising to innovators and redistributions arising from factor price changes. Third, we provide several simple economic models to describe how policy can counter these effects, even in the case of a “singularity” where machines come to dominate human labor.nber.org/papers/w241745/1/2021
Teaching yourself about structural racism will improve your machine learning11/19/19Artificial Intelligence/Machine LearningRacism, structural inequality, artificial intelligence, machine learningWhitney R. Robinson, Audrey Renson, Ashley I NaimiJournal ArticleArgues that anyone conducting machine learning in a health-related domain should educate themselves about structural racism. Says structural racism is a critical body of knowledge needed for generalizability in almost all domains of health research.https://academic.oup.com/biostatistics/article/21/2/339/5631851?login=true5/1/2021
Digital Divides in Political Participation: The Mediating Role of Social Media Self-Efficacy and Privacy ConcernsMarch 2021Digital DivideInternet, online privacy, political participation, self-efficacyChristian Pieter Hoffmann, Christoph LutzJournal ArticleScholarship on political participation and the Internet has found that Internet use may foster both online and offline political participation, while also finding pronounced inequalities in online political participation based on demographic and psychological characteristics. The article advances our theoretical understanding of how inequality in online and offline political participation emerge through cognitive pathways10.1002/poi3.2255/1/2021
Book Review: The Digital Edge: How Black and Latino Youth Navigate Digital InequalityJanuary 2021Digital DivideEquality, social mobility, Black youth, electronic booksCaroline StrattonBook ReviewThe fourth and fifth chapters, both by Watkins, turn to the topic of STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education. Contradictions between the students' plans for their futures and the futures they are equipped to achieve are the subject of the seventh chapter10.1177/14614448209786555/1/2021
The labour digital divide: digital dimensions of labour market segmentation2020Digital DivideDigital inequality, labour market, work digitalization, internet access, market segmentationDaniel Calderón-Gómez, Belén Casas-Mas, Mariano Urraco-Solanilla, Juan Carlos RevillaJournal ArticleThis paper investigates digitalisation in labour activities within the Spanish population, with the aim of examining its extent and characteristics in relation to the digital divide at work, focusing particularly on access to and use of the internet. It thus aims to analyse the digital dimension of job segregation in the Spanish labour market.10.13169/workorgalaboglob.14.2.00075/1/2021
Researching Mobile Phones in the Everyday Life of the "Less Connected": The Development of a New Diary Method November 2020Digital DivideDeveloping countries, mobile communications, cell phonesIndra de Lanerolle, Alette Schoon, Marion WaltonJournal ArticleThis article introduces our mobile diary method, a qualitative method for the study of mobile phone practices. To illustrate the method, we provide examples from our study, Izolo, that spanned three distinct South African neighbourhoods in different parts of the country and focused on less-connected people. It explicitly addressed technological infrastructures and digital materialities, including devices, platforms, tariff structures, different types of connectivity and computational power. 10.1080/23743670.2020.18137855/1/2021
Technological literacy and interrupted internet accessDecember 2020Digital DivideInternet access, broadband services, digital inclusion, government policyJulie Freeman, Sora Park, Catherine MiddletonJournal ArticleA case study of twenty rural Australian internet users reveals that rural communities suffer from limited access, inconsistent and unreliable services, and rural broadband plans' data restrictions and high prices, which we conceptualise as 'interrupted access'. Growing community-level capacity and interest in broadband development suggests national policies could better reduce rural-urban inequities by supporting and empowering localised solutions. Without addressing the interrupted nature of rural connectivity to improve service quality and affordability, disparities in the digital opportunities available to rural and urban consumers will persist. 10.1080/1369118X.2019.16239015/1/2021
Urban Internet myths and Realities: A Detroit case studyDecember 2020Digital DivideInternet access, marginalized communities, urban digital divides, wireless internet Laleah Fernandez, Bianca C. Reisdorf, William H. DuttonJournal ArticleThis study challenges conventional expectations around Internet access and use in distressed urban neighbourhoods in the United States. Our data provide a more realistic assessment of digital divides in Detroit, namely a divide between those with an Internet Service Provider (ISP) contract and those who are overly dependent on mobile, which has limited valuable uses of the Internet. 10.1080/1369118X.2019.16227645/1/2021
COVID-19 exposes digital divide, social stigma, and information crisis in BangladeshDecember 2020Digital DivideGovernment policy, social stigma, asymmetrical informationAbdul Aziz, Mohammad Morshedul Islam, Muhammad ZakariaJournal ArticleThe advent of COVID-19 has exposed digital and social inequalities across the world. Overall, the lack of systematic health information, digital divide, fear, social stigma, and anxiety have further execrated the COVID-19 crisis in Bangladesh.10.1080/01296612.2020.18432195/1/2021
Does the digital divide matter? Factors and conditions that promote ICT literacyMay 2021Digital DivideLiteracy, internet access, information skillsMustafa AydinJournal ArticleThis study aims to take a perspective to investigate the effect of socio-demographic variables, which may cause digital divide, on students' ICT literacy. With this study, it is sought to explain the effect of current inequalities regarding digital access on students' ICT skills. To this end, the socio-demographic characteristics of the students in the sample of Korea and Chile from the participating countries of the International Computer and Information Literacy Study (ICILS) were examined in the context of ICT literacy. 10.1016/j.tele.2020.1015365/1/2021
The digital divide: How COVID-19's telemedicine expansion could exacerbate disparities11/20/2020Digital DivideDigital divide, telemedicine, structural inequality Mina Bakhtiar, Nada Elbuluk, Jules B. LipoffJournal ArticleAdvancement of teledermatology should intuitively expand access to care, given its convenience, cost effectiveness, and triage capabilities.1 However, despite increasing access, we must consider how increased telemedicine could paradoxically create or exacerbate health disparities, with early evidence raising concern.2https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7365110/5/1/2021
Does digital inclusion affect quality of life? Evidence from Australian household panel dataAugust 2020Digital DivideDigital inclusion, quality of life, information and communication technologies, socio-economic statuses Mohammad Afshar Ali, Khorshed Alam, Brad Taylor, Shuddhasattwa RafiqAcademic PaperThis research confirms that digital inclusion significantly predicts QoL and vice versa. Socio-economic advantages, remoteness, rural-urban divide and lifestyle also appear to be significant determinants of the QoL. Findings from the study imply that to promote digital inclusion, policymakers should emphasise not only supply-side issues but also demand-side strategies including the enhancement of digital skills and affordability for the users.10.1016/j.tele.2020.1014055/1/2021
How Next Gen TV Could Bridge Digital Divides7/20/2020Digital DivideTelevision, internet access, technological standards, policymakingArmstrong WilliamsNews ArticleThis article describes over-the-air TV and the ways in which it can provide high-tech streaming services to poor, rural households that lack even the most basic utilities such as internet access. Williams argues that the implementation of this technology should be mandated for every wireless device, and if the FCC and Congress do not support the requirement, the president should consider pursuing this critical public service. https://www.nexttv.com/blogs/how-next-gen-tv-could-bridge-digital-divides5/1/2021
Bridging the digital divide by fostering digital inclusion and economic recovery2/6/2021Digital DivideCOVID-19, economic growth, digital jobsJason AxelrodNews ArticleSummarizes the economic benefit of technological inclusion and the ways in which the COVID-19 pandemic has shed light on the stark divide between those with technological access and skills versus those without access.https://www.americancityandcounty.com/2021/02/05/bridging-the-digital-divide-by-fostering-digital-inclusion-and-economic-recovery/5/1/2021
Confronting the scarcity of digital skills and among the poor in developing countriesMarch 2021Digital DividePoverty, technology access, policyJeffrey JamesAcademic PaperThis article argues in favor of political interventions that bypass the technological scarcity in developing countries in order to bring the benefit of digital technologies to people living in poverty.10.1111/dpr.124795/1/2021
Gender digital divide in a patriarchal society: what can we learn from Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition?9/15/16Digital DivideDigital divide, gender inequality Wun-Ji Jiang and Yir-Hueih LuhJournal ArticleAims to analyze the gender differences in computer and internet use at home. Using data from the 2012 Survey of Digital Divide in Taiwan, we apply a regression-based decomposition method to identify the underlying causes of observed usage differential between males and females. Conditioned on adoption, it is found that compared with their high-income counterparts, low-income females in Taiwan do not spend more time on internet surfing as a result of the high opportunity cost of leisure time.https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11135-016-0409-z5/1/2021
The digital divide: How COVID-19's telemedicine expansion could exacerbate disparities11/20Digital DivideDigital divide, telemedicine, structural inequality Mina Bakhtiar, Nada Elbuluk, Jules B. LipoffJournal ArticleAdvancement of teledermatology should intuitively expand access to care, given its convenience, cost effectiveness, and triage capabilities.1 However, despite increasing access, we must consider how increased telemedicine could paradoxically create or exacerbate health disparities, with early evidence raising concern.2https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7365110/5/1/2021
Bridging The Broadband 'Homework Gap' That puts Some Kids at a Disadvantage1/19Digital DivideDigital divide, technology in educationDr. Edward Lee Vargas, Peter O'DowdNews InterviewThis interview addresses the millions of students without broadband internet access, who are prevented from being able to excel academically. Whether it's the government or private sector's responsibility to resolve this divide, it is evident that further action must be taken. https://www.wbur.org/hereandnow/2016/08/19/broadband-homework-gap5/1/2021
Information Technologies and Educational Inequality in Latin America6/1/14Technology PolicyInformation technology, educational inequality, technology policy, structural inequalityJuan Carlos TedescoJournal ArticleThe article follows the assumption that holds that information technologies cannot define for themselves the social objectives that are pretended to achieve. Democratizing or innovating potential of technologies depends on the social and pedagogical models that contain its use. The digital gap is analyzed between countries and within them, as well as the dynamics of content production and the impact of new technologies on learning results. In designing policy strategies it is recognized that the key variable are teachers, and it warns of the requirement for processes of introduction of information technologies in schools to be accompanied by instances of experimentation and evaluation, since it is the only way to avoid false illusions and make sure the huge investments required in these processes have the desired effects.https://doi.org/10.14507/epaa.v22n48.20145/1/2021
Popular technology: Exploring inequality in the information economy3/1/17Technology PolicyStructural inequality, information economy, distributive justiceVirginia EubanksJournal ArticleAre we asking the wrong questions about inequality in the information economy? This paper explores what scholars and activists miss when we frame our critiques of science, technology and inequality only in terms of distributive justice. In it, I suggest that recent feminist scholarship on justice and oppression offers important correctives to the “distributional ethic” of science and technology policy-making. I argue that strategies that focus on oppression rather than distribution—like the “popular technology” technique described here—are better suited to understanding and ameliorating the complex inequalities of the information age.https://doi.org/10.3152/030234207X1935925/1/2021
The Role of Income Inequality in a Multivariate Cross-National Analysis of the Digital Divide4/7/08Digital DivideDigital divide, income inequality, structural inequalityChristian FuchsJournal ArticleThis article is subject to the following research question: Is the role of income inequality in comparison to other factors an element that influences the digital divide? Eleven variables providing data on 126 countries are analyzed using multivariate regression to identify which of them influence Internet usage to what extent. The used data on 126 countries refer to the year 2005. The results show that income inequality measured by the Gini coefficient is an important influencing factor besides per capita income, the degree of urbanization, and the level of democratization. The results question reductionistic digital divide approaches that analyze information inequality via focusing on a single variable (such as technology or markets). Access to ICTs is shaped by the interaction of socioeconomic, political, cultural, social, and technological factors. These results cast doubt on technological determinism, economic reductionism, and linear trend projection in the digital divide debate. Digital divide causes are complex.https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0894439308321628?casa_token=8axZE6SYwJIAAAAA:nXBpaTMsS4ea8nBK5W92kXjMxLVYUtkSjFiWleM0q8GIhH1ha706odEJ03tBgc_qBoA-GRgieDI65/1/2021
Counter-Storytelling vs. Deficit Thinking around African American Children and Families, Digital Literacies, Race, and the Digital Divide
2/19Digital DivideRace, digital divide, education, structural inequality Tisha Lewis Ellison and Marva SolomonJournal ArticleThis article examines the ways African American children and their parents "story" themselves in relation to digital literacies, race, and the digital divide. Drawing from two interconnected qualitative, ethnographic research case studies about African American children's and parents' digital literacy practices, and using counter-storytelling as a theoretical framework and methodological tool, the authors share narratives that resist common deficit perceptions about these populations. Exploring counter-storytelling as a method, the authors asked: In what ways did two African American children and one parent "story" themselves or use counter-stories to talk about digital literacies, race, and the digital divide? This article refutes claims that the digital divide is a normalcy for African American families, and delivers new insights relevant to the fields of English education and literacy research. It directs researchers' and teacher educators' attention to how participants and students from minoritized communities "story" their experiences, and is designed to spark courageous and rigorous conversations that support African American children's and parents' digital literacy narratives.https://d1wqtxts1xzle7.cloudfront.net/58651236/LEWIS_ELLISON.SOLOMON.Counter-Storytelling_vs._Deficit_Thinking....pdf?1552967949=&response-content-disposition=inline%3B+filename%3DCounter_Storytelling_vs_Deficit_Thinking.pdf&Expires=1613619075&Signature=FxIH2koqwn3YtVQXlEmSDimY4~dUQ1xZGE0TDD0tF0VlCScXBwaSdRnDi7g~mueg2S~6yWPM1vucrGjuXDJO2QUzwFZeQcyN440YUHeJ8UpYwh8gv080BnokT3~tbwzf249z0Yov5nJox0ByHQmC4tyk2jl25OiBNemTWwrOOm-FPNKkUmuNdo8icxNvf--ObYK1Ica6h2WixfrurCaeYB-80EUbjuqCCTSVNHKhHqntHBnQtbu5jWRebOsV0qnLyiOpOOAuq-~tBFsUIPkpxyBXj0nX0m3QZMMzThy3xLKWN-iO83stOI-jGQw-5atZWScCpkC-hjelCdjC2rbwCw__&Key-Pair-Id=APKAJLOHF5GGSLRBV4ZA5/1/2021
Race and the Digital Divide01/04Digital DivideRace, digital divide, education, structural inequality Robert FairlieJournal ArticleIn recent years, a plethora of public and private programs in the United States have been created to close the "Digital Divide." Interestingly, however, we know very little about the underlying causes of racial differences in rates of computer and Internet use. In this paper, I use data from the Computer and Internet Use Supplement to the August 2000 Current Population Survey (CPS) to explore this question. Estimates from the CPS indicate that Mexican-Americans are roughly one-half as likely to own a computer and one-fourth as likely to use the Internet at home than are whites. The black home computer rate is 58 percent of the white rate and the black home Internet use rate is 46 percent of the white rate. Using a special non-linear decomposition technique, I find that racial differences in education, income and occupation contribute substantially to the black/white and Mexican-American/white gaps in home computer and Internet use rates. I do not find evidence that price or school differences are responsible for the remaining gaps. I find some evidence, however, that language barriers may be important in explaining low rates of computer and Internet use among Mexican-Americans.https://escholarship.org/uc/item/48h8h99w5/1/2021
Social Media Participation in an Activist Movement for Racial Equality8/22/17Online Activism and Social MovementsSocial media, racial inequality, activismMunmun De Choudhury, Shagun Jhaver, Benjamin Sugar, and Ingmar WeberAcademic PaperFrom the Arab Spring to the Occupy Movement, social media has been instrumental in driving and supporting socio-political movements throughout the world. In this paper, we present one of the first social media investigations of an activist movement around racial discrimination and police violence, known as “Black Lives Matter”. Considering Twitter as a sensor for the broader community’s perception of the events related to the movement, we study participation over time, the geographical differences in this participation, and its relationship to protests that unfolded on the ground. We find evidence for continued participation across four temporally separated events related to the movement, with notable changes in engagement and language over time. We also find that participants from regions of historically high rates of black victimization due to police violence tend to express greater negativity and make more references to loss of life. Finally, we observe that social media attributes of affect, behavior and language can predict future protest participation on the ground. We discuss the role of social media in enabling collective action around this unique movement and how social media platforms may help understand perceptions on a socially contested and sensitive issue like race.https://ojs.aaai.org/index.php/ICWSM/article/view/147585/1/2021
Can Social Media News Encourage Activism? The Impact of Discrimination News Frames on College Students’ Activism Intentions6/9/20Online Activism and Social MovementsSocial media news, activism, discrimination Marisa A. Smith, Lillie D. Williamson, Cabral A. BigmanJournal ArticleThe marginalization of African Americans is a pervasive issue in American society. As African Americans are left on the fringes of economic, social, and political resources, social media news offers the potential for motivating action that combats the institutional policies contributing to societal disparities. Utilizing the lens of the Anger Activism Model (AAM), this experiment recruited undergraduate participants (N = 198) and tested the effects of implicit and explicit discrimination news frames on activism intentions. The findings indicate that news frames directly impact reported levels of activism intentions among college students. Unexpectedly, we found racial differences in perceptions of whether the news stories involved racial discrimination. The implications of these findings are discussed considering social media news, marginalization, and activism among college students.https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/20563051209213665/1/2021
23% of users in U.S. say social media led them to change views on an issue; some cute Black Lives Matter10/15/2020Online Activism and Social MovementsSocial media influence, race, polarizationAndrew PerrinOnline ArticleRoughly a quarter (23%) of adult social media users in the United States – and 17% of adults overall – say they have changed their views about a political or social issue because of something they saw on social media in the past year, according to a July Pew Research Center survey.https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2020/10/15/23-of-users-in-us-say-social-media-led-them-to-change-views-on-issue-some-cite-black-lives-matter/5/1/2021
Frontier Firms, Technology Diffusion and Public Policy11/12/2015Technology UsePublic policy, technology use, economic efficiencyDan Andrewsi, Chiara Criscuolo and Peter N. GaliWorking PaperThis paper analyses the characteristics of firms that operate at the global productivity frontier and their relationship with other firms in the economy, focusing on the diffusion of global productivity gains and the policies that facilitate it. More productive/innovative firms produce many benefits, but a gap is growing, limiting growth/technology gains. The paper reviews why this is, and suggests some potential policy interventions. https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/content/paper/5jrql2q2jj7b-en5/1/2021
The impact of near-term climate policy choices on technology and emission transition pathways2/1/2013Technology UseClimate policy, technology and climate change, greenhouse gases Jiyong Eom, Jae Edmonds, Volker Krey, Nils Johnson, Thomas Longden, Gunnar Luderer, Keywan Riahi, Detlef P., Van VuurenJournal ArticleThe paper highlights the critical importance of the period 2030–2050 for ambitious climate damage mitigation strategies. In this period, the most rapid shift to low greenhouse gas emitting technology should occur. The paper analyzes what will make this so, and how policy choices today will impact this time period.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S00401625130025405/1/2021
Big Data, Drone Data: Privacy and Ethical Impacts of the Intersection Between Big Data and Civil Drone Deployments10/16/16Cyberwarfare, DronesDrones, cyberwarfare, privacyRachel Finn, Anna DonovanBook Chapter/SectionThe article focuses on the use of drones, in a civil context, for crisis information and precision agriculture. The article explores how such data can raise issues of identifiability, discrimination, equality, and the digital divide. The article concludes that drones are increasingly becoming big data collection platforms, and as they become integrated with additional technologies and systems, it is problematic to characterise civil drone applications as either “high risk” or “low risk”. Instead, it is necessary to consider the privacy and ethical implications of all of the potential technologies involved rather than focusing on drones themselves.https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-94-6265-132-6_35/1/2021
Discipline, method, and theory at the interface of race and technology3/7/20Race and TechnologyRacial injustice, sociotechnical systemsDanya GlabauJournal ArticleBook review/exploration for Surrogate Humanity: Race, Robots, and the Politics of Technological Futures, by Neda Atanasoski and Kalindi Vora. The book explores the concept of the “surrogate effect,” or the re-inscription of a racialized and gendered standard of “the human”, and that emerging “robot” technologies extend an orientation to the future that the authors call “techno liberalism.”https://link.springer.com/article/10.1057/s41292-020-00185-65/1/2021
Legislating against Internet race hate6/1/09Race and TechnologyInternet, hate speech, legislation, discriminationFernne BrennanJournal ArticleThe development of the Internet provides social spaces that enable users to promote race hate. It is argued that race hate hurts but its victims are relatively powerless in the face of this growing problem, and states do not appear to be effective in the light of jurisdictional restrictions. In addressing these concerns the Council of Europe has adopted the Additional Protocol to the Convention on Cybercrime, Concerning the Criminalisation of acts of Racist and Xenophobic Nature Committed through Computer Systems (2003) ('the Protocol'). Its remit obliges States to legislate or otherwise prohibit the use of computer systems for the dissemination of racist materials. This paper argues that on a number of grounds the Protocol does not stand up to the test of effectiveness. This is because it is couched in terms that prioritise freedom of speech over freedom from racial discrimination. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/136008309029410765/1/2021
Book Review: The Digital Edge: How Black and Latino Youth Navigate Digital Inequality1/1/21Race and TechnologyEquality, social mobility, electronic booksCaroline StrattonBook Review10.1177/14614448209786555/1/2021
Cyberbullying Victimization in Context: The Role of Social Inequalities in Countries and Regions8/18/17CyberbullyingCyberbullying, social inequalitiesAnke Görzig, Tijana Milosevic, Elisabeth StaksrudJournal ArticleArticle examines how social inequalities across and within countries contribute to the prevalence of cyberbullying as a phenomena. Finds that differences for cyber- and face-to-face victimization between regions within countries were smaller than differences between countries. Regional-level life expectancy showed a negative and crime rates showed a marginal positive relation with both cyber- and face-to-face victimization. Population density showed a negative and GDP a positive relationship with cyber- but not face-to-face victimization.https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0022022116686186?casa_token=fkL_fg1abZIAAAAA%3AalW7FOq7y-3y5mNVmb5GQ5_bcQiX54VfMD9p__uvDyQE1CdJ_Jy8bQ3nXx5dKBC-dPsXiTUQPD295/1/2021
Race, ethnicity and the strength of Facebook ties10/28/17CyberbullyingRace, ethnicity, Facebook, cyberbullyingGustavo S. MeschJournal ArticleInvestigates the role of race and ethnicity in the self-reported strength of the social ties of young adolescents on Facebook. Study found no differences in the total number of ties that adolescents from different ethnic and racial groups reported. However, African Americans reported significantly higher number of weak ties, while White Americans had a significantly higher number of strong ties.https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13676261.2017.1396303?casa_token=NA7FWyqfDuQAAAAA%3AC35l-qB8VWqBw8s7rV3Z9v4TcHhhqlp_n4N72WvAErtUsQZ30wgCss43MZDoqMW9UEdMH-2EDZjN5/1/2021
Cyberbullying, Mental Health, and Violence in Adolescents and Associations With Sex and Race: Data From the 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey8/6/19CyberbullyingCyberbullying, mental health, violence, sex, raceMohammed Alhajji, Sarah Bass, Ting DaiJournal ArticleThe study examined the association of cyberbullying victimization with mental health conditions and violent behaviors among adolescents, specifically examining potential differences by sex and race. Found that female and white adolescents are at increased risk of being cyberbullied. However, negative mental health outcomes and violent behaviors are more pronounced in males, indicating potential negative effects of being a cyberbullying victim based on sex. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2333794X198688875/1/2021
Bullying and cyberbullying among LGBQ and heterosexual youth from an intersectional perspective: Findings from the 2017 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey7/22/20CyberbullyingCyberbullying, LGBQ justice, bullying preventionWesley, Barnhart, Harrison, AngoffJournal Manuscript (going through review)Studied cyberbullying rates among LGBQ youths. Results found that sexual minority youth are at higher odds of experiencing in-school bullying and cyberbullying than heterosexual youth and that bisexual youth were more likely than gay/lesbian youth to be cyberbullied.https://osf.io/e8c625/1/2021
Mobile phones and inequality: Findings, trends, and future directions4/7/18Social Media, Mobile Devices, News and Journalism (Media & Society)Social media, smartphones, structural inequalityWill MarlerReview ArticleStudies the advantages and disadvantages of mobile phones, through the lense of inequality. Mobile phones strengthen core ties, promote particular Internet activities, and enhance daily coordination and safety. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1461444818765154?casa_token=kM0l1sptnTgAAAAA%3A05lHyHtbvytoX9H56eTJBOZYYO7cH_bDAmrkIRvNFlDJ9AToNxV4FTYz-GlR8kwMDMJNt9mG4W1J5/1/2021
All Lives Matter, but so Does Race: Black Lives Matter and the Evolving Role of Social Media4/3/16Social Media, Mobile Devices, Societal Development, Technology PolicyRacial justice, activismNikita CarneyResearch ArticleThis article explores the ways that youth of color played an active role in debates surrounding civil rights after police brutality in 2014. Studies twitter data to explore how the platform was used to shape national discourse about racehttps://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0160597616643868?casa_token=YtsfpTMQztQAAAAA%3AV_b7-qhnOrgAbeAkL8sxVHm3VSbTQdmLGxw9ijo-FybH0KGyUdaNh6ix6zAhpeNF9wTVOqFU-v5U5/1/2021
Demographics and (Equal?) Voice: Assessing Participation in Online Deliberative SessionsFebruary 2021Societal DevelopmentPolitical participation, communication technology, race, teleconferencing, genderRyan Kennedy, Anand E Sokey, Claire Abernathy, Kevin M Esterling, David MJ Lazer, Amy Lee, William Minozzi, Michael A NebloJournal ArticleCritics of deliberative democracy have worried that deliberation may mirror (or even exacerbate) inequalities in participation across categories such as gender, race, and age. Accordingly, we investigate the potential for technology and design to ameliorate these concerns, looking at the extent to which online deliberative sessions facilitate inclusive participation.10.1177/00323217198908055/1/2021
Stronger Together: Frameworks for Interrogating Inequality in Science and Technology Innovation11/1/18Societal DevelopmentPoverty, inclusive innovation, science and technology policy, international developmentThomas Woodson, Logan WilliamsAcademic PaperDespite the similar goals of the frameworks, the undone science and inclusive innovation theoretical communities have not interacted with each other, and as a result, the insights from each framework fail to help other disciplines improve opportunities for marginalized groups. This paper compares the frameworks and shows how they can help development scholars and practitioners create better policies for marginalized groups. Because the frameworks emphasis slightly different issues, we believe that these two theoretical frameworks are stronger together.https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.32640865/1/2021
Structural Inequality and the Politics of Science and Technology12/23/16Technology Policy, Societal DevelopmentStructural inequality, policy, polarizationDavid J. Hess, Sulfikar Amir, Scott Frickel, Daniel Lee Kleinman, Kelly Moore, and Logan D. A. WilliamsBook Chapter/SectionComprehensive book exploring how structural inequality interacts with politics in STEM. A good primer on the subject, and the bibliography is a useful list to pursue to find more focused sources.https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=FfG7DQAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA319&dq=Structural+Inequality+and+the+Politics+of+Science+and+Technology&ots=vToOgLU2NY&sig=gJz7iEaYMA6BtCQq8U9U4FEPkCk#v=onepage&q=Structural%20Inequality%20and%20the%20Politics%20of%20Science%20and%20Technology&f=false5/1/2021
Algorithms and Ethical Diversity11/11/20Technology Policy, Societal DevelopmentAlgorithms, technology policy, technological ethicsTodd PittinskyThis article focuses on the good that a new technology will provide by avoiding diversity and inclusion as a source of concussion. It delves into the controversies of autonomous cars, and the implications of their all having the same ethical algorithm.https://technologyandsociety.org/algorithms-and-ethical-diversity/5/1/2021
Public participation in science and technology policy: Consensus conferences and social inclusion8/1/12Technology PolicyTech policy, social inclusion, technological ethicsRavtosh BalAcademic PaperThis paper evaluates the efforts to include more ordinary citizens or non-experts in science and technology policy and increase the number of initiatives that help shape these calls.https://scholarworks.gsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://scholar.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=1044&context=pmap_diss5/1/2021
Managing automation: employment, inequality and ethics in the digital age2017Societal DevelopmentPolicy implications, government role, technological change, workplace changeMatthew Lawrence, Carys Roberts, Loren KingAcademic PaperThe IPPR Commission on Economic Justice is a non-partisan initiative to rethink economic policy for post-Brexit Britain. The Commission is undertaking a wide-ranging programme of research and policy consultation on issues including industrial strategy, macroeconomic policy, taxation, work and labour markets, wealth and ownership, sub-national economic policy and technological change. This discussion paper argues that public policy should seek to accelerate automation to reap the productivity benefits, while building new institutions to ensure the dividends of technological change are broadly shared.https://www.ippr.org/research/publications/managing-automation5/1/2021
Why Has Computerization Increased Wage Inequality? Information, Occupational Structural Power, and Wage InequalityNovember 2020Societal DevelopmentEarnings, computers, wages, occupations, inequalityKristal TaliJournal ArticleThis article offers a new account of rising inequality by providing a new explanation for the observed correlation between computerization and earnings. The argument is that as computers transformed work into a more knowledge-intensive activity, occupations located at critical junctions of information flow have gained greater structural power, and thereby higher wages.10.1177/07308884209410315/1/2021
Can technology bridge the gap between rural development and financial inclusions?February 2021Societal DevelopmentTech policy, digital divide, financial inclusion, rural areasEdwin AgwuJournal Article It is evident that digital financial service, as a platform, enhances great opportunities to access finances in various areas. Unfortunately, the markets in developing economies are fragmented and the use of digital financial services has not yet gained popularity. The paper recommends a rethink on the part of the financial institution managers and the inclusion of some aspects of the activities of the informal sector in order to woo the unbanked and the under-banked.10.1080/09537325.2020.17951115/1/2021
Institutional educational technology policy and strategy documents: An inequality gaze3/28/18Societal DevelopmentInequality, policy, higher educationLaura Czerniewicz, Kyle Rother Research ArticleIssues of inequality in higher education have received considerable attention in recent decades, but the intersection of inequality and educational technology at an institutional level has received little attention. This study aims to provide a perspective on institutional educational technology policy informed by current understandings of inequality. The study reveals regional differences in the approach to inequality as a policy matter, as well as a varied engagement with the issues of inequality related to educational technology at a policy level.https://doi.org/10.1177%2F17454999187617085/1/2021
Why Do People Share Fake News: A Sociotechnical Mode of Media Effects2018Societal Development, MisinformationFake news, social media, political polarizationAlice E. MarwickReview ArticleComprehensive book exploring fake news. A good primer on the subject, and the bibliography is a useful list to pursue to find more focused sources.https://georgetownlawtechreview.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/2.2-Marwick-pp-474-512.pdf5/1/2021
Girls Who Coded: Gender in Twentieth Century U.S. and U.K. CodingJanuary 2019Societal DevelopmentGender inequality, coding, sex discriminationKate M. MiltnerBook ReviewComprehensive book exploring the history of women computers and coders in the 20th century. A good primer on the subject, and the bibliography is a useful list to pursue to find more focused sources.https://journals-sagepub-com.proxy.lib.duke.edu/doi/pdf/10.1177/01622439187702875/1/2021
Normative challenges of identification in the Internet of Things: Privacy, profiling, discrimination, and the GDPRJune 2018Societal DevelopmentCybersecurity, discrimination, bias, transparencySandra WachterAcademic PaperThrough a review of academic and policy literature, this paper maps the inherent tension between privacy and identifiability in the IoT. It focuses on four challenges: (1) profiling, inference, and discrimination; (2) control and context-sensitive sharing of identity; (3) consent and uncertainty; and (4) honesty, trust, and transparency.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0267364917303904?casa_token=ryCPs1-s-ZsAAAAA:7245fD-BqOjDlnN5Lwe2wWCVbX5YJ6qnPMD3W6_EUODyx85TEQCChqJWqlQEHP4Xs0FtTvlR5/1/2021
Tool for Surveillance or Spotlight on Inequality? Big Data and the Law7/28/20Societal DevelopmentSurveillance, law, child welfare, cybersecurityRebecca A. Johnson, Tanina RostainAcademic Paper: Annual ReviewThe rise of big data and machine learning is a polarizing force among those studying inequality and the law. Big data and tools like predictive modeling may amplify inequalities in the law, subjecting vulnerable individuals to enhanced surveillance. But these data and tools may also serve an opposite function, shining a spotlight on inequality and subjecting powerful institutions to enhanced oversight. Our review highlights asymmetries where the lack of data infrastructure to measure basic facts about inequality within the law has impeded the spotlight function.https://doi-org.proxy.lib.duke.edu/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-061020-0505435/1/2021
Disinformation, Digital Information Equality, and Electoral Integrity6/1/20MisinformationMisinformation, inequality, elections, democracyElizabeth F. Judge, Amir M. KorhaniJournal ArticleArgues for an updated principle of digital information equality to address the harms of disinformation. By reinvigorating the principle of information equality and adapting it from a theoretical concept to a regulatory device, this article proposes a new method to regulate electoral disinformation while supporting an informed electorate, respecting democratic principles, and protecting electoral integrity. In so doing, the article identifies three harmful examples of electoral disinformation that warrant increased regulation and concludes with recommendations for other jurisdictions seeking to regulate disinformation in the electoral context.https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12889-020-10103-x5/1/2021
Racism and sexism in the gaming world: Reinforcing or changing stereotypes in computer games?5/6/11GamingComputer games, stereotypes, racism, sexismB. Mitchell Peck, Paul R. Ketchum and David G. EmbrickAcademic PaperAdvertising images reflect and shape people's' perceptions about race and gender issues. Examined how imagery in computer game advertisements reinforce race and gender stereotypes and how has stereotyping in computer game imagery changed over the last two decades? Found that women and minorities are represented in gaming advertisements at rates similar to their numbers in the general population. The quality of the representation of women and minorities, however, was generally lower than males and whites. Minorities were generally limited to stereotypical roles or excluded. Women were typically depicted in sexualized roles. https://academicjournals.org/journal/JMCS/article-abstract/EC00B17119745/1/2021
Online Games and Racism, Sexism, and Homophobia

2/11/15GamingGaming, racism, sexism, homophobiaTanner HigginJournal ArticleOrganized as a rough chronology, this entry covers the topics of racism, sexism, and homophobia within online games, starting with multi‐user dungeons (MUDs) in the 1990s and moving through to the contemporaneous indie games movement with a predominant Western focus. This issue is framed as a political and discursive struggle between the dominant culture and the diversification of a medium designed, in many ways, as a bastion of normative White masculine heteronormativity in the face of eroding and indeterminate identity at the interface. Key topics include experimentation with and freedom from identity, stereotypes and intentional design, griefing (abusive game behavior) and trolling as discursive policing, and progressive game design.

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/9781118767771.wbiedcs0555/1/2021
Racism in Video Gaming: Connecting Extremist and Mainstream Expressions of White Supremacy2012GamingGaming, extremism, white supremacy, hate speechJessie Daniels and Nick LaloneAcademic PaperExamines extreme and more mainstream forms of racism in video gaming. Examines relatively unsophisticated video games, such as Border Patrol, created by members of white supremacist movements. Also examined more popular games, such as Grand Theft Auto III & IV and Saints Row 1 & 2. In many ways, the racism in the games created by white supremacists share much more in common with those created by more mainstream game designers for a popular audience than we might anticipate. The article illuminates the way that extremist and more mainstream forms of white supremacy are interwoven and reinforce each other.https://d1wqtxts1xzle7.cloudfront.net/32152331/RacismVideoGames_FINAL.pdf?1382626755=&response-content-disposition=inline%3B+filename%3DRacism_in_Video_Gaming_Connecting_Extrem.pdf&Expires=1610684728&Signature=XfwDsdY89KeZf8e78O8Z8v3UfFpi17aDKaOp95cTCnOHvIOjfl7nsw1QrdE4u6Ou76RoGVzwpXm8sFzVM2-M7HpvIwaIdulzOaeuNZyQaUCTvhnd23vOZOYclVzBAq8d~sm~tkyn~SSmD0e484FAkY8V9h6Zx27sOEznQ57iNK4Gz9IXG1ASkRtZZeBXg8U5eJKWRaYnR6PtLWKavo3OTcfUhYnrAcyQFTAtr8cxtm~gw1gVXkH6-q47asHrN9zmHJm4vwhDo2zpMWmi8Q4ILzD8Et2leN5MfEKEqAuSecI3pMLpB-7yfayS9~zboLmgN0JS7KxK-3oErdkacdE1Zg__&Key-Pair-Id=APKAJLOHF5GGSLRBV4ZA5/1/2021
Casual Empire: Video Games as Neocolonial Praxis1/30/18GamingGaming, colonial imagery, objectificationSabine HarrerAcademic PaperExamines why video games that celebrate imperialistic and western centric viewpoints still get made, and what mechanisms are at work in the enjoyment of empire-themed play experiences. In the article, the author explores three dimensions of the casual empire game – design, play and academia – that make up the three pillars of the casual empire that must be challenged to undermine video games’ neocolonialist ties.https://olh.openlibhums.org/articles/10.16995/olh.210/5/1/2021
The meaning of a game: Stereotypes, video game commentary and color-blind racism4/28/15GamingVideo games, stereotypes, racismBrian McKernanJournal ArticleThe article examines the debate over Resident Evil 5’s (RE5) racially problematic imagery on the popular Internet discussion forum NeoGAF. The article indicates that video game publics are clearly capable of functioning as an aesthetic public sphere, but such discussions predominantly rely on prevailing racial discourses in civil society. Posters primarily incorporate principles from color-blind racism to reject the idea that RE5’s imagery is troubling and to characterize the game’s critics as racists themselves. In doing so, these posters ignore contemporary forms of inequality and marginalize those looking to discuss these issues.
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1057/ajcs.2015.35/1/2021
The virtual census: representations of gender, race and age in video games7/21/09GamingVideo games, gender representation, racial representationDmitri Williams, Nicole Martins, Mia Consalvo, James D. IvoryAcademic PaperA large-scale content analysis of characters in video games was employed to answer questions about their representations of gender, race and age in comparison to the US population. The sample included 150 games from a year across nine platforms, with the results weighted according to game sales. This innovation enabled the results to be analyzed in proportion to the games that were actually played by the public, and thus allowed the first statements able to be generalized about the content of popular video games. The results show a systematic over-representation of males, white and adults and a systematic under-representation of females, Hispanics, Native Americans, children and the elderly. Overall, the results are similar to those found in television research. The implications for identity, cognitive models, cultivation and game research are discussed.https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1461444809105354?casa_token=96NCLIxFuwwAAAAA:k4c9w7LZELvJFKay4uo2Qd_36LYI53wKJDrHoOHIjB-NwuUL_b7JHeY67dT00XxhegQI8gJDmSbs5/1/2021
Effects of Avatar Race in Violent Video Games on Racial Attitudes and Aggression3/20/14GamingVideo games, violence, aggression, racial representationGrace S. Yang, Bryan Gibson, Adam K. Lueke, L. Rowell Huesmann, Brad J. BushmanAcademic PaperThe media often link Black characters and violence. This is especially true in video games, in which Black male characters are virtually always violent. This research tested the effects of playing a violent game as a Black (vs. White) avatar on racial stereotypes and aggression. In Experiment 1, White participants (N = 126) who played a violent video game as a Black avatar displayed stronger implicit and explicit negative attitudes toward Blacks than did participants who played a violent video game as a White avatar or a nonviolent game as a Black or White avatar. In Experiment 2, White participants (N = 141) who played a violent video game as a Black (vs. White) avatar displayed stronger implicit attitudes linking Blacks to weapons. Implicit attitudes, in turn, related to subsequent aggression. Black violent video game avatars not only make players more aggressive than do White avatars, they also reinforce stereotypes that Blacks are violent.

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1948550614528008?casa_token=If8wivmmMGYAAAAA%3AYlVcdybzBJ6MwmlDin5K_zUDy1K_raxGk_hlH9TgX79AJI8ywTd-1UHgHx82LeGUcIzHRHu-fym_5/1/2021
Playing With Prejudice: The Prevalence and Consequences of Racial Stereotypes in Video Games
7/4/08GamingVideo Games, racism, stereotypeMelinda C. R. Burgess , Karen E. Dill , S. Paul Stermer , Stephen R. Burgess & Brian P. BrownAcademic PaperA content analysis of top-selling video game magazines (Study 1) and of 149 video game covers (Study 2) demonstrated the commonality of overt racial stereotyping. Both studies revealed that minority females are virtually absent in game representations. Study 1 revealed that, in video game magazines, minority males, underrepresented generally, were more likely to be portrayed as athletes or as aggressive, and less likely to be depicted in military combat or using technology, than White males. Study 2 also showed evidence of the “dangerous” minority male stereotype in video game covers. Again, underrepresented overall, minority males were overrepresented as thugs, using extreme guns, and also as athletes. Study 3, an experiment, exposed players to both violent and nonviolent games with both White and Black characters. Participants were faster at classifying violent stimuli following games with Black characters and at classifying nonviolent stimuli following games with White characters, indicating that images of popular video game characters evoke racial stereotypes.

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15213269.2011.596467?casa_token=wh6n1TkUfP0AAAAA%3AddKdT5y1UVxBr0EXQNcSeOEfzrJ4nOWzPdaecqL2hJXSvQ_Z4i6D2GbC__Uwi0JhxalEhIIyGOC15/1/2021
From Damsels in Distress to Sexy Superheroes
2/26/14GamingVideo games, sexismAlicia Summers & Monica K. MillerAcademic PaperVideo games are an important form of media that have the potential to impact gender role attitudes. Sexist portrayals of characters may affect gender behaviors and attitudes. As such, it is important to discover how characters, particularly females, are portrayed in video games. The current study examined video game magazines analyzing the portrayal of female video game characters and how this portrayal has changed in the last twenty years. Results indicate a growing trend toward a decreased benevolent sexism portrayal and an increase in a hostile sexism portrayal over time.https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14680777.2014.8823715/1/2021
Video Games Exposure and Sexism in a Representative Sample of Adolescents3/31/17GamingVideo games, sexismLaurent Bègue, Elisa Sarda, Douglas A. Gentile, Clementine Bry, and Sebastian RochéJournal ArticleThe purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between video game exposure and sexism for the first time in a large and representative sample. Our aim was also to measure the strength of this association when two other significant and well-studied sources of sexism, television exposure and religiosity, were also included in a multivariate model. A representative sample of 13520 French youth aged 11–19 years completed a survey measuring weekly video game and television exposure, religiosity, and sexist attitudes toward women. Controlling for gender and socioeconomic level, results showed that video game exposure and religiosity were both related to sexism. Implications of these results for future research on sexism in video games are discussed.

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00466/full5/1/2021
Sexism in online video games: The role of conformity to masculine norms and social dominance orientation4/14GamingVideo games, masculinityJesse Fox & Wai Yen TangJournal ArticleThe study sought to determine what personality traits, demographic variables, and levels of game play predicted sexist attitudes towards women who play video games. Male and female participants (N = 301) who were players of networked video games were invited to participate in an anonymous online survey. Social dominance orientation and conformity to some types of masculine norms (desire for power over women and the need for heterosexual self-presentation) predicted higher scores on the Video Game Sexism Scale (i.e., greater sexist beliefs about women and gaming). Implications for the social gaming environment and female gamers are discussed.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563213002525?casa_token=eC4hGbztsKwAAAAA:xf8RIRL6I-QjU-gAJd0qvc0o_Kc_T1hyM1liNvpbCPVQpMUmAy60YGENAbQkDEGGl5PZprYJ5/1/2021
How the Gig Economy Promotes Inequality9/18/20Gig EconomyGig economy, structural inequalityJuliet SchorReportThe Gig Economy promotes socio economic stratification by denying benefits and living wages to its primarily non white, foreign-born workforce.https://www.milkenreview.org/articles/how-the-gig-economy-promotes-inequality5/1/2021
To fix racial bias in the gig economy, start with the rating systems9/24/20Gig EconomyGig economy, racial bias, technology and the economyJohn H. ChuangNewspaper ArticleInequality in the gig economy is nothing new. For years, millions of low-paid gig workers have been denied sick pay and health insurance by companies that intentionally misclassify them as contract workers. For companies like Uber, Lyft, Doordash, and Taskrabbit, it’s a calculated move to avoid the cost of benefits and federal payroll taxes. Unfortunately, it took a global pandemic to bring these unfair conditions into the spotlight, when under-protected workers suddenly found themselves deemed “essential.”

https://qz.com/work/1908494/fix-the-rating-systems-to-fight-racial-bias-in-the-gig-economy/5/1/2021
Rising Income Inequality and the Future of Work in Digital Platforms: Uber and California Assembly Bill 5
5/5/20Gig EconomyGig economy, structural inequalityChang Wook MinJournal ArticleIt is well known that Uber and Lyft have created many job opportunities through digital platforms. The problem, however, is that the economic benefits of digital technology appear to be concentrated in the hands of the rich. While Uber has significantly increased service efficiency by route monitoring and dispatch algorithm, many Uber drivers still earn less than the minimum wage. By classifying drivers as independent contractors, Uber has been able to save $3,625 per driver annually, owing $413 million of unemployment insurance taxes to the state between 2014 and 2019. On the other hand, the CEO of the company received $45 million in 2019.

https://bppj.berkeley.edu/2020/07/02/rising-income-inequality-and-the-future-of-work-in-digital-platforms-uber-and-california-assembly-bill-5/5/1/2021
THE GENDER EARNINGS GAP IN THE GIG ECONOMY: EVIDENCE FROM OVER A MILLION RIDESHARE DRIVERS6/18/20Gig EconomyGig economy, wage gap, gender inequalityCody Cook, Rebecca Diamond, Jonathan Hall, John A. List, Paul OyerAcademic PaperThe growth of the “gig” economy generates worker flexibility that, some have speculated, will favor women. We explore this by examining labor supply choices and earnings among more than a million rideshare drivers on Uber in the U.S. We document a roughly 7% gender earnings gap amongst drivers. We completely explain this gap and show that it can be entirely attributed to three factors: experience on the platform (learning-by-doing), preferences over where to work (driven largely by where drivers live and, to a lesser extent, safety), and preferences for driving speed. We do not find that men and women are differentially affected by a taste for specific hours, a return to within-week work intensity, or customer discrimination. Our results suggest that there is no reason to expect the “gig” economy to close gender differences. Even in the absence of discrimination and in flexible labor markets, women’s relatively high opportunity cost of non-paid-work time and gender-based differences in preferences and constraints can sustain a gender pay gap.https://www.nber.org/system/files/working_papers/w24732/w24732.pdf5/1/2021
The Ethical Debate about the Gig Economy: A Review and Criitical Analysis9/22/20Gig EconomyAlgorithms, digital ethics, digital platforms, labor market, labor rightsZhi Ming Tan, Nikita Aggarwal, Josh Cowls, Jessica Morley, Mariarosaria Taddeo, Luciano FloridiAcademic PaperThis article provides a clear and systematic analysis of the main ethical challenges caused by the gig economy. Following a brief overview of the gig economy, its scope and scale, we map the key ethical problems that it gives rise to, as they are discussed in the relevant literature. We map them onto three categories: the new organisation of work (what is done), the new nature of work (how it is done), and the new status of workers (who does it). We then evaluate a recent initiative from the EU that seeks to address the challenges of the gig economy.https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.36692165/1/2021
The Future of Cash: Will digital payment systems replace paper currency?7/19/20Gig EconomyPaper money, cashless societies, consumer habits, financial inclusion, electronic money transfersHannah H. KimNews ArticleIn the United States, digital payment systems are helping to change consumer habits, and some businesses have stopped accepting cash. Advocates of a cashless society argue that credit and debit cards and digital payment methods are efficient and transparent and inhibit financial crimes. Because cash is anonymous and largely untraceable, it can facilitate illicit activities such as tax evasion and money laundering. Critics of the cashless trend raise concerns regarding privacy, security and equality. They argue that cash lacks the fees associated with cards or electronic money transfers and that cashless businesses discriminate against people who must, or choose to, rely on cash. In the face of this criticism, some businesses that went cashless are reversing course.5/1/2021
Brown Calls for a More Equitable Banking System6/30/20Gig EconomyPredatory lending, digitization, digital currencies, banking industry, algorithmsFederal Information & News DispatchCongressional DocumentU.S. Senator Sherrod Brown (D-OH) - ranking member of the U.S. Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs - delivered the following opening statement at today's hearing entitled "The Digitization of Money and Payments."5/1/2021
Open Banking and Libra: A New Frontier of Financial Inclusion for Payment Systems?September 2020Gig EconomyPublic policy, financial inclusion, bank services, digital currenciesAndreas Kokkinis, Andrea MiglionicoJournal ArticleA wide range of digital initiatives have an impact on 'financial inclusion', ie, access to banking services both for underbanked and low-income customers. Promoting financial inclusion using virtual platforms in low and middle-income countries enables reaching vulnerable and excluded customers. This article examines the new frontiers of open banking and cryptocurrencies for payment systems from the perspective of inclusive financial development.5/1/2021
Digital labour and development: impacts of global digital labour platforms and the gig economy on worker livelihoods3/16/17Gig EconomyDigital labor, outsourcing, freelancing, digital work, markets, economic developmentMark Graham, Isis Hjorth, Vili LehdonvirtaResearch PaperAs ever more policy-makers, governments and organisations turn to the gig economy and digital labour as an economic development strategy to bring jobs to places that need them, it becomes important to understand better how this might influence the livelihoods of workers. Drawing on a multi-year study with digital workers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South-east Asia, this article highlights four key concerns for workers: bargaining power, economic inclusion, intermediated value chains, and upgrading. The article shows that although there are important and tangible benefits for a range of workers, there are also a range of risks and costs that unduly affect the livelihoods of digital workers.https://doi.org/10.1177%2F10242589166872505/1/2021
Data Mining for Detecting Bitcoin Ponzi Schemes6/20/18Gig EconomyAnonymity, racial discrimination, Ponzi victimizationMassimo Bartoletti, Barbara Pes, Sergio SerusiResearch PaperSoon after its introduction in 2009, Bitcoin has been adopted by cyber-criminals, which rely on its pseudonymity to implement virtually untraceable scams. One of the typical scams that operate on Bitcoin are the so-called Ponzi schemes. These are fraudulent investments which repay users with the funds invested by new users that join the scheme, and implode when it is no longer possible to find new investments. Despite being illegal in many countries, Ponzi schemes are now proliferating on Bitcoin, and they keep alluring new victims, who are plundered of millions of dollars. We apply data mining techniques to detect Bitcoin addresses related to Ponzi schemes.https://doi.org/10.1109/CVCBT.2018.000145/1/2021
The Implications of Blockchain for Income Inequality7/11/05Gig EconomyLedgers, blockchain-enabled technology, income inquality, structural inequality, inequality reproductionMikayla NovakBook ChapterThis chapter discusses the implications of blockchain technology for income inquality. Although inequality is identified as a complex and emergent phenomenon, we nonetheless are able to identify channels through which blockchains are likely to affect the distribution of income. 5/1/2021
Uber Drivers and Employment Status in the Gig Economy: Should Corporate Responsibility Tip the Scales?11/3/18Gig EconomyWorker status, insurance, corporate responsibilityStan Malos, Gretchen Vogelgesang Lester, Meghna VirickAcademic PaperLegal and regulatory systems in the U.S. and elsewhere continue to struggle with how to determine and apply a consistent standard as to employee classification. We argue that corporate social responsibility should figure prominently in the equation. Private companies already are required to cover social costs of doing business in a variety of contexts (e.g., workers compensation, family leave, public and workplace accommodations for disabled individuals), and it makes sense that they also should be required to underwrite other important implications associated with employee status as part of their responsibilities to society.5/1/2021
Digital Disruption of Human Rights3/25/16This review surveys contemporary challenges in the field of technology and human rights. The increased use of artificial intelligence (AI) in decision making in the public and private sectors—e.g., in criminal justice, employment, public service, and financial contexts—poses significant threats to human rights. Addressing these challenges requires efforts to ensure that the development and implementation of new technologies respects and promotes human rights. Traditional distinctions between public and private must be updated to remain relevant in the face of deeply enmeshed state and corporate action in connection with technological innovation.Human rights, digital influence, public policy, public welfareReportAs new technologies have emerged, public debate around how human rights are impacted has tended to be reactive, piecemeal, and often impractical. Given that so many dimensions of society have been disrupted by digital technology, it has been difficult for policymakers to see the bigger trends, to understand the relationship between the parts, and to assess top priorities. It’s time for policymakers to be more proactive and holistic, and to advance practical solutions to several priority global human rights challenges.https://www.hrw.org/news/2016/03/25/digital-disruption-human-rights5/1/2021
HUMAN RIGHTS RACIAL EQUALITY & NEW INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES6/20Human RightsHuman rights, racial equality, information technologyReportReport explores the current political economy surrounding information technologies, and suggests possible solutions, with an emphasis on human rights.https://law.ucla.edu/sites/default/files/PDFs/Publications/Promise_Institute/Human%20Rights,%20Racial%20Equality,%20&%20New%20IT%20Report%203.pdf5/1/2021
Ex-NAACP President Jealous pushing technology for equality4/13/14Human RightsRacial justice, racial representation in technologyHazel Trice EdneyNews ArticleFormer NAACP President decides to pursue his interest in technology by finding the intersection of tech and racial equality in Silicon Valley. He will serve as a venture partner for the Kapor Center for Social Impact, striving to help entrepreneurs and inventors find ways to use technology to fill social gaps in Americahttps://theievoice.com/ben-jealous-pushing-technology-for-equality/5/1/2021
Racism Detection in Twitter Using Deep Learning and Text Mining Techniques for the Arabic Language12/15/20Human Rights/Racism in Social MediaRacism, Twitter, hate speech, ArabicAlaf Alotaibi, Mozaherul Hoque Abul HasanatReportArticle reveals that development and incorporation of hate speech and racism detectors in social media are much slower in the Arab region relative to in English speaking countries. The report strives to carefully consider the complications of the Arab language in order to better detect cyber-racism.https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9283815/metrics#metrics5/1/2021
Use of Technology to Facilitate Practice Improvement in Trauma-Informed Child Welfare Systems2019Human Rights/Social WelfareChild welfare, information technologyCrystal Collins-Camargo, Jessica Strolinna, Becci AkinAcademic PaperThis paper discusses the potential for technology to improve how child welfare agencies implement trauma-informed systems reform.https://search.proquest.com/docview/2308151657?fromopenview=true&pq-origsite=gscholar5/1/2021
Human Rights and Technology: New Challenges for Justice and Accountability7/20/20Human RightsArtificial intelligence, surveillance, social media, harassmentMolly K. Land, Jay D. AronsonAcademic Paper: Annual ReviewThis review surveys contemporary challenges in the field of technology and human rights. The increased use of artificial intelligence (AI) in decision making in the public and private sectors—e.g., in criminal justice, employment, public service, and financial contexts—poses significant threats to human rights.5/1/2021
Algorithms of Oppression: How Search Engines Reinforce RacismFall 2020Human RightsAlgorithmic data, societal structures, corporate responsibility, social justiceSafiya Umoja NobleMonographNoble argues that internet search engines, particularly the world's most prominent system, Google, are harbingers of data discrimination and are not fundamentallly equal in their presentation of and engagement with members from identity groups that are outside of preferred norms.5/1/2021
Racism in the Machine7/12/05Human RightsRace, bias, people of color, stereotypes, institutional racismReuben Jonathan MillerBook ReviewThis brief article reviews Ruha Benjamin's "Race After Technology: Abolitionist Tools for the New Jim Code"10.1177/23326492209425215/1/2021
Race After Technology7/11/05Human RightsDiscrimination, machine bias, discriminatory design, tech developmentRuha BenjaminBookThis book examinnes the relatinoship between machine bias and systemic racism, analyzing specific cases of "discriminatory design" and offering tools for a socially-conscious approach to tech development. 5/1/2021
Racism on the Internet: Conceptualization and recommendations for research2018Human RightsHate speech, digital freedom, stereotypes, normsBrian TaeHyuk Keum, Matthew J. MillerJournal ArticleWe provide a conceptual framework in characterizing the prevalence of racism in online settings. Approach: We articulate the processes underlying the racism visible in online settings based on review of relevant online communication and racism theories and studies that have examined online social mechanisms. Notably, increased anonymity on the Internet, or online anonymity, gives rise to several online attitudes that can foster racist representations in online settingshttps://doi.org/10.1037/vio00002015/1/2021
Race, Racism and Identification in the Era of Technosecurity10/4/18Human RightsRacism, identity, forensics, borders, visualizationDavid SkinnerAcademic PaperThe inter-dependences of security and technology reconfigure the race object as an unstable assemblage of corporeal, digital, and discursive elements. The implementation and management of new identification systems often accommodate to contemporary sensitivities around cultural difference and expression of identity but in ways that do little to address the structured inequalities they reinforce.https://doi.org/10.1080/09505431.2018.15238875/1/2021
Social media and new racismApril 2019Human RightsRacism, online commentaries, stereotypes, hate speechMiron Kumar BhowmikAcademic PaperOur goal is to advance research in this field by examining the ways in which everyday racism in public commentaries on on-line news articles are creating new intersecting matrixes of racialization and racism. Our argument draws on an analysis of on-line commentaries about ethnic minorities in Hong Kong. Research testifies that ethnic minorities in Hong Kong encounter racism in almost every aspect of their daily lives including education, employment, accommodation, financial services, transportation services, retail and personal services, catering services, and medical services.5/1/2021
COVID-19 Remote Learning Transition in Spring 2020: Class Structures, Student Perceptions, and Inequality in College CoursesOctober 2020EducationTechnology barriers, racial inequalities, internet access, teaching methodsGillis Alanna, Laura M. KrullResearch ArticleThis article explores instructional techniques used in the transition, student perceptions of effectiveness/enjoyment/accessibility of those techniques, barriers that students faced due to the transition, and race/class/gender inequality in experiencing those barriers. We found that which instructional technique instructors use is less important than how well they implement it for student learning. Although there is a tradeoff between enjoyment and accessibility, instructors can use techniques to increase accessibility of interactive formats. Internet and technology barriers were extremely common, even for students who did not anticipate problems.10.1177/0092055X209542635/1/2021
Learning "Anytime, Anywhere"? The Imperfect Alignment of Immigrant Students' Experiences and School-Based Technologies in an Urban U.S. High SchoolAugust 2020EducationEducational systems, immigrant students, educational technology, urban schools, inequalityAvary Carhill-Poza, Timothy P. WilliamsResearch ArticleAcross many education systems, technologies like computers and tablets are now ubiquitous. But the mere presence of these technologies is insufficient to improve learning, and implementation without careful thought may reinforce inequalities for disenfranchised groups such as immigrant children and youth. The present study analyzes qualitative fieldwork data to understand how immigrant students' lived experiences affected their engagement with school-based technologies and how teachers sought to respond to students. Findings challenge the idea that technology unproblematically supports all students in learning "anytime, anywhere" and highlights the way that factors such as work, language, and family resources shape how technology is used for learning by immigrant youth.5/1/2021
Missing in Action: Gifted Black Girls in Science, Technology, Engineering, and MathematicsJanuary 2020EducationGender equality, STEM education, disproportionate representation, racial biasKristina Henry Collins, Nicole M. Joseph, Donna Y. FordJournal ArticleA noticeable issue in STEM and gifted education is the poor presence of Black girls. We contend that for females, the disconnect between grades, class performance, and interest is all too familiar. This is true even if they are gifted, and especially for Black girls. This article is written with the resolve to address the underpinning complexity of contemporary challenges of underrepresentation of gifted Black girls in STEM, which are rooted in intersectional issues of race and sex discrimination. We address barriers and offer recommendations for change, mostly grounded in relevant theories.http://dx.doi.org.proxy.lib.duke.edu/10.1177/10762175198805935/1/2021
Technology Problems and Student Achievement Gaps: A Validation and Extension of the Technology Maintenance ConstructJuly 2020EducationDigital divide, digital inequality, technology maintenance, Internet access, social inequalityAmy L. Gonzales, Jessica McCrory Calarco, Teresa LynchAcademic PaperHow do physical digital inequalities persist as technology becomes commonplace? We consider this question using surveys and focus groups with U.S. college students, a group that has better than average connectivity. Findings from a 748-person nonrepresentative survey revealed that ownership and use of cellphones and laptops were nearly universal. However, roughly 20% of respondents had difficulty maintaining access to technology (e.g., broken hardware, data limits, connectivity problems, etc.). Students of lower socioeconomic status and students of color disproportionately experienced hardships, and reliance on poorly functioning laptops was associated with lower grade point averages10.1177/00936502187963665/1/2021
Rethinking the Race Between Education & TechnologyFall 2018EducationNew technology, public education, employment, socioeconomicsPhillip Brown, Ewart KeepJournal ArticleThe Harvard economists Claudia Goldin and Lawrence Katz explain rising income inequality in the US as a result of the education system failing to keep pace with technological innovation and the rising demand for higher-level skills. If the nation is anticipating a growing need for workers with advanced skills, then education is at the heart of economic and social policy.5/1/2021
Rethinking the Race Between Education & TechnologyFall 2018EducationNew technology, public education, employment, socioeconomicsPhillip Brown, Ewart KeepJournal ArticleThe Harvard economists Claudia Goldin and Lawrence Katz explain rising income inequality in the US as a result of the education system failing to keep pace with technological innovation and the rising demand for higher-level skills. If the nation is anticipating a growing need for workers with advanced skills, then education is at the heart of economic and social policy.5/1/2021
Inequality, information technology and inclusive education in sub-Saharan AfricaJune 2019EducationEducation, inequality, information technology, inclusionSimplice A. Asongu, Stella-Maris I. Orim, Rexon T. NtingAcademic PaperThis study examines linkages between inequality, information and communication technology (ICT) and inclusive education in order to establish inequality thresholds that should not be exceeded in order for ICT to promote inclusive education in 42 countries in sub-Saharan Africa for the period 2004–2014.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2019.06.0065/1/2021
Do educational inequalities affect Internet use? An analysis for developed and developing countries.May 2021EducationInternet in education, educational equality, developing countries, economic developmentMargarita Billon, Jorge Crespo, Fernando Lera-LopezJournal ArticleThis paper analyzes the impacts of educational inequalities on Internet use at the country level. The relevance of educational inequalities on Internet use depends on countries' socio economic development. This study investigates whether the existence of educational inequalities at the country level affects Internet use. Additionally, we explore the extent to which these impacts depend on countries' economic development levels.10.1016/j.tele.2020.1015215/1/2021
What Are Leaders of Tech Programs for Black Students Willing to Sacrifice for Money?2021EducationTechnology education, summer programs, project-based learning, donorsSia Elle BrownJournal ArticleA lead instructional coach at a social justice-oriented summer tech program for students of color reflects on feedback she received from other members of the organization’s leadership. Students were admonished for using phones, wearing headphones, taking breaks, and choosing when to participate in activities. Leaders of the organization wanted to inhibit students from engaging in behaviors that might prevent donors from continuing to support the program. The author offers reflections on the experience and believes that preparing students for tech fields involves promoting autonomy and self-management. She also believes that donors should be better prepared to enter tech classes.5/1/2021
Human Capital and Inequality Dynamics: The Role of Education Technology
9/17/09EducationEducation technology, structural inequalityJEAN‐MARIE VIAENE ITZHAK ZILCHAAcademic PaperThe paper offers a unified way to examine several puzzles on inequality dynamics. It focuses on differences in the education technology and their effects on income distributions. Our overlapping generations economy has the following features: (1) consumers are heterogeneous with respect to ability and parental human capital; and (2) intergenerational transfers take place via parental direct investment in education and, public education financed by taxes (possibly, with a level determined by majority voting). We explore several variations in the production of human capital, some attributed to ‘home‐education’ and others related to ‘public‐education’, and indicate how various changes in education technologies affect the intergenerational income inequality along the equilibrium path.

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1468-0335.2008.00718.x5/1/2021
Our Voices Matter: Using Video-Cued Ethnography to Facilitate a Conversation about Race between Parents of Color and Preservice TeachersSeptember 2019EducationVideo technology, racial differences, equal educationKathlene Holmes Campbell, Anne ValauriJournal Article - Research ReportThis article highlights how video-cued ethnography (VCE) helped facilitate conversations about race between parents of color and preservice teachers. Utilizing VCE, we conducted exchanges between both groups to determine what would occur if they engaged in asynchronous discussions about the impact of race in schools. Two notable shifts emerged: (1) the necessity of conversations to end racial oppression and (2) the importance of challenging inequities to present a racially conscious curriculum to young children.http://dx.doi.org.proxy.lib.duke.edu/10.1111/aeq.122965/1/2021
Intended and Unintended Consequences of Educational Technology on Social Inequality

7/25/16EducationEducation technology, structural inequalityAndrew A Tawfik, Todd D Reeves & Amy Stich Academic PaperWhile much has been written in the field of educational technology regarding educational excellence and efficiency, less attention has been paid to issues of equity. Along these lines, the field of educational technology often does not address key equity problems such as academic achievement and attainment gaps, and inequality of educational access and opportunity. In this paper, we survey research regarding persistent inequality issues related to (a) educational access and (b) educational opportunity in the U.S. education system. Furthermore, we discuss intended and unintended consequences of educational technology on social equality. We then conclude with a discussion of how educational technology researchers and practitioners should consider the broader social context in which their work is conducted and the intended and unintended consequences it might have on social inequality.https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11528-016-0109-55/1/2021
"If You Aren't White, Asian or Indian, You Aren't an Engineer": Racial Microaggressions in STEM Education2020EducationRacial bias, college environment, minority group students, disproportionate representationMeggan J. Lee, Jasmine D. Collins, Stacy Anne Hardwood, Ruby Mendenhall, Margaret BrowneJournal Research ArticleRace and gender disparities remain a challenge in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. We introduce campus racial climate as a framework for conceptualizing the role of racial microaggressions (RMAs) as a contributing factor to the lack of representation of domestic students of color in STEM programs on college campuses.Our study demonstrates the need for campus officials, academic professionals, faculty members, and students to work together to address racism at the campus, academic, and peer levels. Additionally, STEM departments must address the impacts of the larger racial campus culture on their classrooms, as well as how departmental culture reinforces racial hostility in academic settings.http://dx.doi.org.proxy.lib.duke.edu/10.1186/s40594-020-00241-45/1/2021
Facial Recognition Technology in Schools: Critical Questions and Concerns2020EducationIdentification, school security, authoritarianism, privacy, gender bias, racial biasMark Andrejevic, Neil Selwyn Journal Article: Descriptive ReportFacial recognition technology is now being introduced across various aspects of public life. This includes the burgeoning integration of facial recognition and facial detection into compulsory schooling to address issues such as campus security, automated registration and student emotion detection.While critical commentators are beginning to question the pedagogical limitations of facially driven learning, other this article contends that school-based facial recognition presents a number of other social challenges and concerns that merit specific attention. Against this background, the article considers whether or not a valid case can ever be made for allowing this form of technology in schools. http://dx.doi.org.proxy.lib.duke.edu/10.1080/17439884.2020.16860145/1/2021
The Racializing Forces of/in AI Educational Technologies2020EducationRacial bias, artificial intelligence, educational technologyEzekiel Dixon-Román, Philip T. Nicholas, Ama Nyame-MensahJournal Article: Research ReportIn this article, we examine the sociopolitical implications of AI technologies as they are integrated into writing instruction and assessment...In this article, we examine the sociopolitical implications of AI technologies as they are integrated into writing instruction and assessment.http://dx.doi.org.proxy.lib.duke.edu/10.1080/17439884.2020.16678255/1/2021
Educator Perceptions and Use of Technology in South African Schools2020EducationEducational technology, racial bias, technology integration, technological literacyKelly M. Torres, Lord GiddieJournal Article: Descriptive ReportSouth African schools experience diverse access to educational technology. Further, South African educators have limited opportunities to attend educator professional development workshops focused on technology integration. These differences can have a tremendous impact on students' educational experiences and educators' levels of self-efficacy toward implementing technology in their school settings. This article provides an overview of South African educational contexts and how partnerships can be formed to provide educator support to integrate educational technology in township schools.http://dx.doi.org.proxy.lib.duke.edu/10.1080/0161956X.2020.17456115/1/2021
Rules for the Use of Information Technology in the Code of Ethics in Higher Education2020EducationInformation technology, higher education, ethics of technology Liliana Mata, Alexandra Georgiana Poenaru Conference PaperThis qualitative study analyzes the codes of ethics and university deontology to identify the rules for the use of information technology. It grants specific examples of rules of the use of information technology within the codes of ethics at the university level, and reveals that there are few explicit rules regarding the use. https://search-proquest-com.proxy.lib.duke.edu/education/docview/2454718274/DD2E69AA923B4762PQ/16?accountid=105985/1/2021
Technological literacy for teachersJun 2017EducationEducational technology, teachers, computer literacy, powerCatherine HasseAcademic PaperOngoing developments in educational technologies place increasing demands on teachers who have to make decisions on a daily basis concerning how, when, and where to make use of technologies in classrooms. The Technucation project found that teachers were not simply in need of knowledge about how to manage technical challenges, they would also benefit from awareness of how new technologies change relations, identities, and complex power structures. The paper explicitly addresses this issue of the new skills and analytic capabilities that teachers need in order to engage effectively with technological development.10.1080/03054985.2017.13050575/1/2021
The social construction of time in contemporary education: implications for technology, equality and Bernstein's 'conditions for democracy1/4/16EducationEducation, structural inequality, disparitiesSandra Leaton GrayJournal ArticleThis article discusses how the introduction of technology has shifted the relationship between education and time, and how that change has affected the education of disadvantaged groups in England. It analyzes how new concepts of time in education, especially with regard to synchronous versus asynchronous learning, have resulted in inequalities for those in deprived areas.https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/01425692.2016.12343665/1/2021
Why Is Facebook Rejecting These Fashion Ads?
2/11/21AIAI, Facebook, Advertisement, disabilitiesVanessa FriedmanNews ArticleAn article examining how advertisement AI's can systematically discriminate against certain groups in selecting what ads are accepted for view on the platform.https://www.nytimes.com/2021/02/11/style/disabled-fashion-facebook-discrimination.html?action=click&module=Editors%20Picks&pgtype=Homepage5/1/2021
Towards Algorithm Auditing: A Survey on Managing Legal, Ethical and Technological Risks of AI, ML and Associated Algorithms2/15/21AIAI, Algorithms, Technology Policy, Internet governanceVariusJournal ArticleAs AI grows in prevalence, and algorithms guide more of business, we have a ethical stake in auditing and assuring new AI and algorithms. The comprehensive paper reviews the key areas of this areahttps://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=37789985/1/2021
Algorithmic bias detection and mitigation: Best practices and policies to reduce consumer harms5/22/19AIAI, Algorithms, Technology Policy, Internet governance, Nichol Turner Lee, Paul Resnick, Genie BartonJournal ArticleThe private and public sectors are increasingly turning to artificial intelligence (AI) systems and machine learning algorithms to automate simple and complex decision-making processes. The mass-scale digitization of data and the emerging technologies that use them are disrupting most economic sectors, including transportation, retail, advertising, and energy, and other areas. This paper explores methods to protect consumers in the face of algorithmic bias. It also touches on the causes and proof of such bias. Explores methods of identifying bias, ethical frameworks, and mitigation proposals. https://www.brookings.edu/research/algorithmic-bias-detection-and-mitigation-best-practices-and-policies-to-reduce-consumer-harms/5/1/2021
NATIONAL MINORITY BROADBAND ADOPTION: COMPARATIVE TRENDS IN ADOPTION, ACCEPTANCE AND USE2/1/10Digital DivideDigital Divide, Public Participation, Technology UseJon P. Gant, Nichol Turner Lee, Ying Li, Joseph MillerJournal ArticleAs internet access takes on increasing performance, we need to pay attention to how people access it. Access is not even across ethnic divides, and can thus be a factor influencing poverty and discouraging social mobility. The paper explores trends in this space in 2010, creating a wide picture of the state of internet usage and acceptance across different minority groups. http://broadbandillinois.org/uploads/cms/documents/mti_broadband_report_web.pdf5/1/2021
Detecting racial bias in algorithms and machine learning8/13/18AIAI, Digital DivideNichol Tunrer LeeJournal ArticleThe online economy has not resolved the issue of racial bias in its applications. While algorithms are procedures that facilitate automated decision-making, or a sequence of unambiguous instructions, bias is a byproduct of these computations, bringing harm to historically disadvantaged populations. This paper argues that algorithmic biases explicitly and implicitly harm racial groups and lead to forms of discrimination. The findings of the paper suggest that explicit racial bias in algorithms can be mitigated by existing laws, including those governing housing, employment, and the extension of credit. Implicit, or unconscious, biases are harder to redress without more diverse workplaces and public policies that have an approach to bias detection and mitigation.https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/JICES-06-2018-0056/full/html5/1/2021
From Parity to Preference-based Notions of Fairness in Classification6/30/17AIAI, Digital DivideVariusJournal ArticleMuch has been made about how to make AI systems, and author data driven automated solution, more fair. This paper doesn't explore that concept in fact. Rather, it aims to explore how we define fairness as a concept.https://arxiv.org/abs/1707.000105/1/2021
A Unified Approach to Quantifying Algorithmic Unfairness: Measuring Individual & Group Unfairness via Inequality Indices7/1/18AIAI, Digital DivideVariusJournal ArticleDiscrimination via algorithmic decision making has received considerable attention. The paper focuses on the following question: Given two unfair algorithms, how should we determine which of the two is more unfair? The core idea of the paper is to use existing inequality indices from economics to measure how unequally the outcomes of an algorithm benefit different individuals or groups in a population.https://dl.acm.org/doi/pdf/10.1145/3219819.32200465/1/2021
Communication Infrastructure, Social Media, and Civic Participation across Geographically Diverse Communities in the United States1/29/21Digital DivideAI, Digital DivideVariusJournal ArticleThis paper explores a nationwide online panel survey that revealed that community-oriented social media (CSM) use was positively associated with civic participation. The results also indicate that the relationship between CSM and civic participation was stronger for those who reside in rural communities. Interpersonal discussion in this study played a similar role for residents living in suburban communities.https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10510974.2021.1876129?casa_token=sp3IyoKdYHMAAAAA%3Av5SiORSZcACGKHSc0DCI0-Wo0IsAiSQjWfEpRI4fBHbDwPImXANSVnbKinhaji0xi6l0kFvs__4LWw&5/1/2021
The who, what, why and where of online anonymity: Toward a judicial rubric for choosing alternative unmasking standards2012CybersecurityCybersecurity, Internet Governance, Technology policyKearston WesnerDissertationThis almost 200 page publication explores the topic of online anonymity and its relation to the judicial system. Topics include anonymous speech protections, methods of "unmasking" anonymous speakers, related judicial cases, and rubrics for evaluating potential unmasking techniques/standards. https://search.proquest.com/openview/ac6a2bb7f102a369b2a72210d6ffb908/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=18750&diss=y&casa_token=xKMctKk49J4AAAAA:kLupSz-Yim1qzbD8Racq6GVDcnwYjj1jAUX0m6Qe645g2fejsICBcipw7XDYZJ7Y4tcs9vzUJwo5/1/2021
Predictable policing: New technology, old bias, and future resistance in big data surveillance6/30/20AIAI, Cyberwarfare, Technology UseXerxes Minocher, Caelyn RandallJournal ArticleThis article explores the rise of predictive policing in the United States as a form of big data surveillance. Bringing together literature from communication, criminology, and science and technology studies, the article uses a case study of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA to outline that predictive policing, rather than being a novel development, is in fact part of a much larger, historical network of power and control.https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1354856520933838?casa_token=W3FLH5hMY2UAAAAA%3AtSrewo4ePHioAyiKWzpaFCQRkYICpeNsZaQpou4XAqoksaTryOopi8KYOMjarvz8M0nXBW7f_jrlzw&journalCode=cona5/1/2021
Bursting the Education Bubble11/20/2019EducationEducation, digital divide, structural inequalityMichael Smith, Pedro Ferreira, Lauren Herckis, Lee BranstetterPodcastBig data disrupted the entertainment industry by changing the ways that people develop, distribute and access content, and it may soon do the same for education. New technologies are changing education, both within and beyond the classroom, as well as opening up more accessible learning opportunities. However, without reform in our infrastructure, this ed-tech might not reach the people who need it the most.https://www.cmu.edu/block-center/podcast-consequential/index.html5/1/2021
Fair Enough11/13/2019Artificial IntelligenceAlgorithms, artificial intelligence, technology ethicsJason Hong, Molly Wright Steenson, David DanksConsequential Podcast: Season 1, Episode 4Everyone has a different definition of what fairness means - including algorithms. As municipalities begin to rely on algorithmic decision-making, many of the people impacted by these AI systems may not intuitively understand how those algorithms are making certain crucial choices. How can we foster better conversation between policymakers, technologists and communities their technologies affect?https://www.cmu.edu/block-center/podcast-consequential/index.html5/1/2021
Pandemics, Public Data and Privacy4/8/2020Healthcare TechnologyHealthcare, privacy, public health, COVID-19Wilbert Van Panhuis, Tom Mitchell, Scott AndesConsequential Podcast: Season 2, Episode 1Mobile data records, tracking devices and government-mandated selfies have played a large role in both enforcing quarantines and providing data to better understand the coronavirus. In this week’s episode of Consequential, hosts Eugene and Lauren examine the importance of collecting and using data for public health, the individual privacy concerns that arise as a result of this data collection, and the challenges of striking a balance between societal benefit and personal privacy. This episode is part one of a two-episode look on large-scale public health data analytics.https://www.cmu.edu/block-center/podcast-consequential/index.html5/1/2021
Can a Robot Take Bias Out of the Interview Process?9/8/2020Civil RightsRobots, bias, structural inequalityAnn ThompsonFocus on Technology (NPR) PodcastVideo job interviews are becoming the norm, especially during COVID-19. But there is some question as to how fairly you are evaluated in this medium.https://www.npr.org/podcasts/504983884/focus-on-technology5/1/2021
As Drones Become More Common, Privacy Concerns Arise 10/12/2020DronesDrones, cyberwarfare, privacyAnn ThompsonFocus on Technology (NPR) PodcastU.S. cities and their residents are being preemptive to protect privacy when it comes to an increasing number of drones with cameras.https://www.npr.org/podcasts/504983884/focus-on-technology5/1/2021
Knowledge production and the bias pipeline: The story of EEG10/21/2020Healthcare TechnologyHealthcare, information technology, biasLauren Prastien, Eugene Leventhal, Ben Amaba, Arnelle Etienne, Pulkit Grover, Shawn KellyConsequential Podcast: Season 3, Episode 1This episodes observes how underlying biases in the development of the EEG have impacted healthcare, medical technology, and scientific researchhttps://www.cmu.edu/block-center/podcast-consequential/index.html5/1/2021
Creating workforce resilience in tech, media, and telecom10/23/2020Societal DevelopmentWorkforce, employee skillset, employee resillience, digital landscapeHanish PatelUser Friendly: Creating workforce resilience in tech, media, and telecom PodcastThis past year, the race to upskill talent has jumped into the spotlight as not only a business imperative, but a social expectation. In our rapidly transforming digital landscape where the only constant is change, what can organizations do to build employee resilience and prepare the future workforce to reinvent itself?https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/user-friendly/id1275775528?i=10004958550035/1/2021
If banning bots won't stop disinformation, what will?10/28/2020MisinformationMisinformation, bots, election, COVID-19Lauren Prastien, Eugene Leventhal, Mike Doyle, Kathleen CarleyConsequential Podcast: Season 3, Episode 2Disinformation is as old as the printing press, if not older. So what has accelerated its spread now, and what can be done to stop it? On this special bonus episode of Consequential, we speak to the experts about disinformation, the election, and COVID-19.https://www.cmu.edu/block-center/podcast-consequential/index.html5/1/2021
Is Crowdsourcing the Answer to our Data Diversity Problem?11/11/2020Public Engagement and ParticipationCrowdsourcing, diversity, public engagement, knowledge productionLauren Prastien, Eugene Leventhal, David S. Jones, Ilka Gleibs, Jeffrey BighamConsequential Podcast: Season 3, Episode 3Traditional scientific research has a data diversity problem. Online platforms, such as Mechanical Turk, give researchers access to a wider variety and greater volume of subjects, but they are not without their issues. This episode discusses the pros and cons of knowledge production using crowdsourced data.https://www.cmu.edu/block-center/podcast-consequential/index.html5/1/2021
Black Tech Unplugged: Episode 4111/12/2020The Public SphereCivic tech, public policyChris Kuang, Zeryn Sarpangal, Andréa VizaBlack Tech Unplugged: Episode 41 PodcastThis episode explains what, exactly, civil tech is, how to play a role in civil tech, and the importance of this work environmenthttps://blacktechunplugged.com/2020/11/12/ep-041-civic-tech-unplugged/5/1/2021
Enron, Wikipedia, and the Deal with Biased Low-Friction Data12/16/2020Artificial IntelligenceArtificial intelligence, algorithmic bias, dataLauren Prastien, Eugene Leventhal, Amanda Levendowski, Katie WillinghamConsequential Podcast: Season 3, Episode 5The Enron emails helped give us spam filters, and many natural language processing and fact-checking algorithms rely on data from Wikipedia. While these data resources are plentiful and easily accessible, they are also highly biased. This week, we speak to guests Amanda Levendowski and Katie Willingham about how low-friction data sources contribute to algorithmic bias and the role of copyright law in accessing less troublesome sources of knowledge and data.https://www.cmu.edu/block-center/podcast-consequential/index.html5/1/2021
Is the presence of a human enough to regulate AI decision making?12/30/2020Artificial IntelligenceArtificial intelligence, technological autonomy, ethical decisionsLauren Prastien, Eugene Leventhal, Sumeet Chabria, David Danks, Maria De-ArteagaConsequential Podcast: Season 3, Episode 6From helping to identify tumors to guiding trading decisions on Wall Street, artificial intelligence has begun to inform important decision-making, but always with the input of a human. However, not all humans respond the same way to algorithmic advice. This episode of Consequential looks at human-in-the-loop AIhttps://www.cmu.edu/block-center/podcast-consequential/index.html5/1/2021
Why does open source have such a wide Gender Gap?1/20/2021Representation in TechnologyGender gap, open source internet, structural inequality, representation, disinformationLauren Prastien, Eugene LeventhalConsequential Podcast: Season 3, Episode 7Open source software is the infrastructure of the Internet, but it is less diverse than the tech industry overall. In this deep-dive on gender in open source, we speak to CMU’s Laura Dabbish and Anita Williams Woolley about what’s keeping women from participating in open source software development and how increased participation benefits society as a whole.https://www.cmu.edu/block-center/podcast-consequential/index.html5/1/2021
Making Tech Work for All Women2/23/2021Representation in TechnologyGender gap, digital citizenship, online abuse, gender equality, women's rightsSeyi Akiwowo, Sam SmethersShe Talks Tech: Season 2, Episode 7 PodcastWe discuss the deficit in digital citizenship education and its impact on women in the workplace. Plus, their key recommendations for a more equal and positive online world.https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/making-tech-work-for-all-women/id1529123023?i=10005103926965/1/2021
Diversity in Tech3/23/2021Representation in TechnologyGender gap, inclusion practices, diverse talent, tech industry successSheree Atchesonm, Seyi Akiwowo, Christina Scott, Mark Martin, Shefali GeraShe Talks Tech: Season 2, Episode 11 PodcastThis panel will be discussing the best practices lived in organizations to foster greater inclusion. They will focus on examples of how organizations have attracted and nurtured their diverse talent, and also talk about why inclusion and diversity in tech is key to the future success of the industry and to society as a whole.https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/diversity-in-tech/id1529123023?i=10005141453565/1/2021
Cryptocurrency's Newest Frontier4/13/2021Gig EconomyCryptocurrencies, non-fungible tokens, financial inclusion Sabrina Tavernise, Kevin RooseThe Daily Podcast, New York TimesThe craze for digital artworks known as NFT's exploded over the past year. Why are some people shelling out millions of dollars for them?https://www.nytimes.com/2021/04/13/podcasts/the-daily/nft-bitcoin-cryptocurrency.html5/1/2021

Table Key

Title: Article Title
Pub. Date: Publication Date
Topic: General Article Topic
KW: Article Key Words
Auth: Author(s)
Format: Media Type
Source: Source Link or DOI
Date A.: Date Added to the Database